Power loss minimization of off-grid solar DC nano-grids—part I: centralized control algorithm

Cephas Samende, Sivapriya M. Bhagavathy, Malcolm McCulloch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)
14 Downloads (Pure)


Peer-to-peer interconnection of households having on-site batteries, multi-port converters and solar panels to form a multi-port converter-enabled solar DC nano-grid is an emerging approach for providing affordable energy access in rural areas. Battery charge and discharge losses, distribution losses and converter losses are significant problem when operating such nano-grids. This paper presents a centralized control algorithm that can help address the power loss problem. The proposed algorithm uses a new problem formulation where the power loss problem is formulated as a two-stage convex optimization problem. The first stage of the optimization problem is an optimal battery dispatch problem for determining optimal battery charge and discharge currents. The second stage is an optimal current flow problem for determining optimal distribution voltages which corresponds to the optimal battery currents. Simulation results of the nano-grid show that the proposed algorithm can minimize the nano-grid power losses while facilitating the power exchange between the households. The proposed algorithm is suitable for small nano-grids where privacy of households is not a concern. In Part II of this paper we propose a distributed control algorithm that preserves the privacy of the households especially where the size of the nano-grid is large.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4715-4725
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2021


  • batteries
  • voltage control
  • solar panels
  • disharges
  • resistance


Dive into the research topics of 'Power loss minimization of off-grid solar DC nano-grids—part I: centralized control algorithm'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this