To develop potent and metabolically stable agonists for protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), we prepared 2-furoylated (2f) derivatives of native PAR-2-activating peptides, 2f-LIGKV-OH, 2f-LIGRL-OH, 2f-LIGKV-NH2, and 2f-LIGRL-NH2, and systematically evaluated their activity in PAR-2-responsive cell lines and tissues. In both HCT-15 cells and NCTC2544 cells overexpressing PAR-2, all furoylated peptides increased cytosolic Ca 2+ levels with a greater potency than the corresponding native peptides, although a similar maximum response was recorded. The absolute potency of each peptide was greater in NCTC2544, possibly due to a higher level of receptor expression. Furthermore, the difference in potency between the 2-furoylated peptides and the native peptides was enhanced when evaluated in the rat superior mesenteric artery and further increased when measuring PAR-2-mediated salivation in ddY mice in vivo. The potency of 2f-LIGRL-NH 2, the most powerful peptide, relative to SLIGKV-OH, was about 100 in the cultured cell Ca2+ signaling assays, 517 in the vasorelaxation assay, and 1100 in the salivation assay. Amastatin, an aminopeptidase inhibitor, augmented salivation caused by native peptides, but not furoylated peptides. The PAR-2-activating peptides, including the furoylated derivatives, also produced salivation in the wild-type C57BL/6 mice, but not the PAR-2-deficient mice. Our data thus demonstrate that substitution of the N-terminal serine with a furoyl group in native PAR-2-activating peptides dramatically enhances the agonistic activity and decreases degradation by aminopeptidase, leading to development of 2f-LIGRL-NH2, the most potent peptide. Furthermore, the data from PAR-2-deficient mice provide ultimate evidence for involvement of PAR-2 in salivation and the selective nature of the 2-furoylated peptides.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jun 2004|
- protease-activated receptors
- amino acid substitution
- protease activated receptor 2 agonist
- amino terminal sequence