### Abstract

We describe work on the relationship between the independently-studied polygon-circle graphs and word-representable graphs. A graph G = (V, E) is word-representable if there exists a word w over the alpha-bet V such that letters x and y form a subword of the form xyxy ⋯ or yxyx ⋯ iff xy is an edge in E. Word-representable graphs generalise several well-known and well-studied classes of graphs [S. Kitaev, A Comprehensive Introduction to the Theory of Word-Representable Graphs, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10396 (2017) 36–67; S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015]. It is known that any word-representable graph is k-word-representable, that is, can be represented by a word having exactly k copies of each letter for some k dependent on the graph. Recognising whether a graph is word-representable is NP-complete ([S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015, Theorem 4.2.15]). A polygon-circle graph (also known as a spider graph) is the intersection graph of a set of polygons inscribed in a circle [M. Koebe, On a new class of intersection graphs, Ann. Discrete Math. (1992) 141–143]. That is, two vertices of a graph are adjacent if their respective polygons have a non-empty intersection, and the set of polygons that correspond to vertices in this way are said to represent the graph. Recognising whether an input graph is a polygon-circle graph is NP-complete [M. Pergel, Recognition of polygon-circle graphs and graphs of interval filaments is NP-complete, Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 33rd Int. Workshop, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4769 (2007) 238–247]. We show that neither of these two classes is included in the other one by showing that the word-representable Petersen graph and crown graphs are not polygon-circle, while the non-word-representable wheel graph W
_{5} is polygon-circle. We also provide a more refined result showing that for any k ≥ 3, there are k-word-representable graphs which are neither (k −1)-word-representable nor polygon-circle.

Language | English |
---|---|

Pages | 3-8 |

Number of pages | 6 |

Journal | Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics |

Volume | 71 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 20 Mar 2019 |

Event | 2nd IMA Conference on Theoretical and Computational Discrete Mathematics - University of Derby, Derby, United Kingdom Duration: 14 Sep 2018 → 15 Sep 2018 https://ima.org.uk/7775/2nd-ima-conference-theoretical-computational-discrete-mathematics/ |

### Fingerprint

### Keywords

- Petersen graph
- polygon-circle graph
- word-representable graph
- circle graphs
- computation

### Cite this

}

*Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics*, vol. 71, pp. 3-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.endm.2019.02.001

**Polygon-circle and word-representable graphs.** / Enright, Jessica; Kitaev, Sergey.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Polygon-circle and word-representable graphs

AU - Enright, Jessica

AU - Kitaev, Sergey

PY - 2019/3/20

Y1 - 2019/3/20

N2 - We describe work on the relationship between the independently-studied polygon-circle graphs and word-representable graphs. A graph G = (V, E) is word-representable if there exists a word w over the alpha-bet V such that letters x and y form a subword of the form xyxy ⋯ or yxyx ⋯ iff xy is an edge in E. Word-representable graphs generalise several well-known and well-studied classes of graphs [S. Kitaev, A Comprehensive Introduction to the Theory of Word-Representable Graphs, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10396 (2017) 36–67; S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015]. It is known that any word-representable graph is k-word-representable, that is, can be represented by a word having exactly k copies of each letter for some k dependent on the graph. Recognising whether a graph is word-representable is NP-complete ([S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015, Theorem 4.2.15]). A polygon-circle graph (also known as a spider graph) is the intersection graph of a set of polygons inscribed in a circle [M. Koebe, On a new class of intersection graphs, Ann. Discrete Math. (1992) 141–143]. That is, two vertices of a graph are adjacent if their respective polygons have a non-empty intersection, and the set of polygons that correspond to vertices in this way are said to represent the graph. Recognising whether an input graph is a polygon-circle graph is NP-complete [M. Pergel, Recognition of polygon-circle graphs and graphs of interval filaments is NP-complete, Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 33rd Int. Workshop, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4769 (2007) 238–247]. We show that neither of these two classes is included in the other one by showing that the word-representable Petersen graph and crown graphs are not polygon-circle, while the non-word-representable wheel graph W 5 is polygon-circle. We also provide a more refined result showing that for any k ≥ 3, there are k-word-representable graphs which are neither (k −1)-word-representable nor polygon-circle.

AB - We describe work on the relationship between the independently-studied polygon-circle graphs and word-representable graphs. A graph G = (V, E) is word-representable if there exists a word w over the alpha-bet V such that letters x and y form a subword of the form xyxy ⋯ or yxyx ⋯ iff xy is an edge in E. Word-representable graphs generalise several well-known and well-studied classes of graphs [S. Kitaev, A Comprehensive Introduction to the Theory of Word-Representable Graphs, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10396 (2017) 36–67; S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015]. It is known that any word-representable graph is k-word-representable, that is, can be represented by a word having exactly k copies of each letter for some k dependent on the graph. Recognising whether a graph is word-representable is NP-complete ([S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015, Theorem 4.2.15]). A polygon-circle graph (also known as a spider graph) is the intersection graph of a set of polygons inscribed in a circle [M. Koebe, On a new class of intersection graphs, Ann. Discrete Math. (1992) 141–143]. That is, two vertices of a graph are adjacent if their respective polygons have a non-empty intersection, and the set of polygons that correspond to vertices in this way are said to represent the graph. Recognising whether an input graph is a polygon-circle graph is NP-complete [M. Pergel, Recognition of polygon-circle graphs and graphs of interval filaments is NP-complete, Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 33rd Int. Workshop, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4769 (2007) 238–247]. We show that neither of these two classes is included in the other one by showing that the word-representable Petersen graph and crown graphs are not polygon-circle, while the non-word-representable wheel graph W 5 is polygon-circle. We also provide a more refined result showing that for any k ≥ 3, there are k-word-representable graphs which are neither (k −1)-word-representable nor polygon-circle.

KW - Petersen graph

KW - polygon-circle graph

KW - word-representable graph

KW - circle graphs

KW - computation

UR - https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/electronic-notes-in-discrete-mathematics

U2 - 10.1016/j.endm.2019.02.001

DO - 10.1016/j.endm.2019.02.001

M3 - Article

VL - 71

SP - 3

EP - 8

JO - Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics

T2 - Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics

JF - Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics

SN - 1571-0653

ER -