# Polygon-circle and word-representable graphs

Jessica Enright, Sergey Kitaev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

### Abstract

We describe work on the relationship between the independently-studied polygon-circle graphs and word-representable graphs. A graph G = (V, E) is word-representable if there exists a word w over the alpha-bet V such that letters x and y form a subword of the form xyxy ⋯ or yxyx ⋯ iff xy is an edge in E. Word-representable graphs generalise several well-known and well-studied classes of graphs [S. Kitaev, A Comprehensive Introduction to the Theory of Word-Representable Graphs, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10396 (2017) 36–67; S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015]. It is known that any word-representable graph is k-word-representable, that is, can be represented by a word having exactly k copies of each letter for some k dependent on the graph. Recognising whether a graph is word-representable is NP-complete ([S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015, Theorem 4.2.15]). A polygon-circle graph (also known as a spider graph) is the intersection graph of a set of polygons inscribed in a circle [M. Koebe, On a new class of intersection graphs, Ann. Discrete Math. (1992) 141–143]. That is, two vertices of a graph are adjacent if their respective polygons have a non-empty intersection, and the set of polygons that correspond to vertices in this way are said to represent the graph. Recognising whether an input graph is a polygon-circle graph is NP-complete [M. Pergel, Recognition of polygon-circle graphs and graphs of interval filaments is NP-complete, Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 33rd Int. Workshop, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4769 (2007) 238–247]. We show that neither of these two classes is included in the other one by showing that the word-representable Petersen graph and crown graphs are not polygon-circle, while the non-word-representable wheel graph W 5 is polygon-circle. We also provide a more refined result showing that for any k ≥ 3, there are k-word-representable graphs which are neither (k −1)-word-representable nor polygon-circle.

Original language English 3-8 6 Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics 71 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.endm.2019.02.001 Published - 20 Mar 2019 2nd IMA Conference on Theoretical and Computational Discrete Mathematics - University of Derby, Derby, United KingdomDuration: 14 Sep 2018 → 15 Sep 2018https://ima.org.uk/7775/2nd-ima-conference-theoretical-computational-discrete-mathematics/

### Fingerprint

Computer science
Polygon
Circle
Graph in graph theory
Circle Graph
Wheels
Computer Science
Intersection Graphs
NP-complete problem
Petersen Graph
Spiders
Subword
Filament
Complete Graph
Wheel

### Keywords

• Petersen graph
• polygon-circle graph
• word-representable graph
• circle graphs
• computation

### Cite this

@article{fb276186fc914b9ba8618a4ebd3cc1a3,
title = "Polygon-circle and word-representable graphs",
abstract = "We describe work on the relationship between the independently-studied polygon-circle graphs and word-representable graphs. A graph G = (V, E) is word-representable if there exists a word w over the alpha-bet V such that letters x and y form a subword of the form xyxy ⋯ or yxyx ⋯ iff xy is an edge in E. Word-representable graphs generalise several well-known and well-studied classes of graphs [S. Kitaev, A Comprehensive Introduction to the Theory of Word-Representable Graphs, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10396 (2017) 36–67; S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015]. It is known that any word-representable graph is k-word-representable, that is, can be represented by a word having exactly k copies of each letter for some k dependent on the graph. Recognising whether a graph is word-representable is NP-complete ([S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015, Theorem 4.2.15]). A polygon-circle graph (also known as a spider graph) is the intersection graph of a set of polygons inscribed in a circle [M. Koebe, On a new class of intersection graphs, Ann. Discrete Math. (1992) 141–143]. That is, two vertices of a graph are adjacent if their respective polygons have a non-empty intersection, and the set of polygons that correspond to vertices in this way are said to represent the graph. Recognising whether an input graph is a polygon-circle graph is NP-complete [M. Pergel, Recognition of polygon-circle graphs and graphs of interval filaments is NP-complete, Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 33rd Int. Workshop, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4769 (2007) 238–247]. We show that neither of these two classes is included in the other one by showing that the word-representable Petersen graph and crown graphs are not polygon-circle, while the non-word-representable wheel graph W 5 is polygon-circle. We also provide a more refined result showing that for any k ≥ 3, there are k-word-representable graphs which are neither (k −1)-word-representable nor polygon-circle.",
keywords = "Petersen graph, polygon-circle graph, word-representable graph, circle graphs, computation",
author = "Jessica Enright and Sergey Kitaev",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1016/j.endm.2019.02.001",
language = "English",
volume = "71",
pages = "3--8",
journal = "Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics",
issn = "1571-0653",

}

Polygon-circle and word-representable graphs. / Enright, Jessica; Kitaev, Sergey.

In: Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics, Vol. 71, 20.03.2019, p. 3-8.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Polygon-circle and word-representable graphs

AU - Enright, Jessica

AU - Kitaev, Sergey

PY - 2019/3/20

Y1 - 2019/3/20

N2 - We describe work on the relationship between the independently-studied polygon-circle graphs and word-representable graphs. A graph G = (V, E) is word-representable if there exists a word w over the alpha-bet V such that letters x and y form a subword of the form xyxy ⋯ or yxyx ⋯ iff xy is an edge in E. Word-representable graphs generalise several well-known and well-studied classes of graphs [S. Kitaev, A Comprehensive Introduction to the Theory of Word-Representable Graphs, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10396 (2017) 36–67; S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015]. It is known that any word-representable graph is k-word-representable, that is, can be represented by a word having exactly k copies of each letter for some k dependent on the graph. Recognising whether a graph is word-representable is NP-complete ([S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015, Theorem 4.2.15]). A polygon-circle graph (also known as a spider graph) is the intersection graph of a set of polygons inscribed in a circle [M. Koebe, On a new class of intersection graphs, Ann. Discrete Math. (1992) 141–143]. That is, two vertices of a graph are adjacent if their respective polygons have a non-empty intersection, and the set of polygons that correspond to vertices in this way are said to represent the graph. Recognising whether an input graph is a polygon-circle graph is NP-complete [M. Pergel, Recognition of polygon-circle graphs and graphs of interval filaments is NP-complete, Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 33rd Int. Workshop, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4769 (2007) 238–247]. We show that neither of these two classes is included in the other one by showing that the word-representable Petersen graph and crown graphs are not polygon-circle, while the non-word-representable wheel graph W 5 is polygon-circle. We also provide a more refined result showing that for any k ≥ 3, there are k-word-representable graphs which are neither (k −1)-word-representable nor polygon-circle.

AB - We describe work on the relationship between the independently-studied polygon-circle graphs and word-representable graphs. A graph G = (V, E) is word-representable if there exists a word w over the alpha-bet V such that letters x and y form a subword of the form xyxy ⋯ or yxyx ⋯ iff xy is an edge in E. Word-representable graphs generalise several well-known and well-studied classes of graphs [S. Kitaev, A Comprehensive Introduction to the Theory of Word-Representable Graphs, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 10396 (2017) 36–67; S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015]. It is known that any word-representable graph is k-word-representable, that is, can be represented by a word having exactly k copies of each letter for some k dependent on the graph. Recognising whether a graph is word-representable is NP-complete ([S. Kitaev, V. Lozin, “Words and Graphs” Springer, 2015, Theorem 4.2.15]). A polygon-circle graph (also known as a spider graph) is the intersection graph of a set of polygons inscribed in a circle [M. Koebe, On a new class of intersection graphs, Ann. Discrete Math. (1992) 141–143]. That is, two vertices of a graph are adjacent if their respective polygons have a non-empty intersection, and the set of polygons that correspond to vertices in this way are said to represent the graph. Recognising whether an input graph is a polygon-circle graph is NP-complete [M. Pergel, Recognition of polygon-circle graphs and graphs of interval filaments is NP-complete, Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 33rd Int. Workshop, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4769 (2007) 238–247]. We show that neither of these two classes is included in the other one by showing that the word-representable Petersen graph and crown graphs are not polygon-circle, while the non-word-representable wheel graph W 5 is polygon-circle. We also provide a more refined result showing that for any k ≥ 3, there are k-word-representable graphs which are neither (k −1)-word-representable nor polygon-circle.

KW - Petersen graph

KW - polygon-circle graph

KW - word-representable graph

KW - circle graphs

KW - computation

UR - https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/electronic-notes-in-discrete-mathematics

U2 - 10.1016/j.endm.2019.02.001

DO - 10.1016/j.endm.2019.02.001

M3 - Article

VL - 71

SP - 3

EP - 8

JO - Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics

JF - Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics

SN - 1571-0653

ER -