Point prevalence surveys of antimicrobial use: a systematic review and the implications

Zikria Saleem, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Brian Godman, Ann Versporten, Furqan Khurshid Hashmi, Hamid Saeed, Fahad Saleem, Muhammad Salman, Inayat Ur Rehman, Tahir Mehmood Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
30 Downloads (Pure)


Introduction: In view of increasing concerns with antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the World Health Organization (WHO) instituted a Global Action Plan (GAP) to address this. Area Covered: One of the strategies to achieve the goals of GAP is to conduct regular surveillance of antimicrobial use through point prevalence surveys (PPS). After systematic database screening of 2,893 articles, 60 PPS met the inclusion criteria and consequently were incorporated in this systematic review. Expert Opinion: This review highlighted that most of the PPS were conducted in upper-middle and high-income countries. Prevalence of antimicrobial use was significantly higher in non-European hospitals compared with European hospitals. The domination of third-generation cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones use across all the regions suggests substantial use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials across countries. Among all identified regions around the world, India was the region where the highest use of antimicrobials was observed. Although PPS is a useful tool to assess the pattern of antimicrobial use and provides a robust baseline, however, a standardize surveillance method is needed. In order to optimize antimicrobial use, more efforts are required to improve the antimicrobial use.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)897-910
Number of pages14
JournalExpert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Issue number9
Early online date20 May 2020
Publication statusPublished - 28 Sep 2020


  • point prevalence survey
  • antimicrobial prescribing
  • review
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • guidelines


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