Planning level sizing of heat pumps and hot water tanks incorporating model predictive control and future electricity tariffs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Heat pumps and hot water tanks in local energy systems require sizing to increase on-site renewables self-consumption; decrease costs through variable electricity pricing; and utilise low-cost wind power. While detailed tools can capture these mechanisms, planning-level tools lack functionality and miss these benefits. In this paper an open-source planning-level modelling tool, PyLESA, is presented and applied to a sizing study to demonstrate the capturing of these benefits at the planning-level. Specific aims of the study were to investigate: (i) model predictive control vs. fixed order control, (ii) existing and future wind-influenced electricity tariffs, and (iii) optimal cost size combinations of heat pump and hot water tank. The lowest levelized cost of heat for the existing tariffs was for a time-of-use tariff, 750 kW heat pump and 500 m 3 hot water tank combination. For the future wind-influenced tariff a 1000 kW heat pump and 2000 m 3 hot water tank was cost optimal and showed model predictive control benefits over fixed order control with levelized heat costs reducing 41 %, and heat demand met by renewables increasing 18 %. These results demonstrate PyLESA as capable of capturing flexibility benefits at the planning stage of design and quantify the advantage of combining flexible tariffs with model predictive control.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121731
JournalEnergy
Volume238
Early online date11 Aug 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 Aug 2021

Keywords

  • heat pump
  • thermal storage
  • model predictive control
  • local energy systems
  • energy system modelling
  • load shifting

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