Performance assessment of tariff-based air source heat pump load shifting in a UK detached dwelling featuring phase change-enhanced buffering

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32 Citations (Scopus)
662 Downloads (Pure)


Using a detailed building simulation model, the amount of thermal buffering, with and without phase change material (PCM), needed to time-shift an air source heat pump's operation to off-peak periods, as defined by the UK 'Economy 10' tariff, was investigated for a typical UK detached dwelling. The performance of the buffered system was compared to the case with no load shifting and with no thermal buffering. Additionally, the load shifting of a population of buffered heat pumps to off-peak periods was simulated and the resulting change in the peak demand on the electricity network was assessed. The results from this study indicate that 1000 L of hot water buffering or 500 L of PCM-enhanced hot water buffering was required to move the operation of the heat pump fully to off-peak periods, without adversely affecting the provision of space heating and hot water for the end user. The work also highlights that buffering and load shifting increased the heat pump's electrical demand by over 60% leading to increased cost to the end user and increased CO2 emissions (depending on the electricity tariff applied and time varying CO2 intensity of the electricity generation mix, respectively). The study also highlights that the load-shifting of populations of buffered heat pumps wholly to off-peak periods using crude instruments such as tariffs increased the peak loading on the electrical network by over 50% rather than reducing it and that careful consideration is needed as to how the load shifting of a group of heat pumps is orchestrated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)809-820
Number of pages12
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Issue number2
Early online date25 Dec 2013
Publication statusPublished - 22 Oct 2014


  • load shifting
  • demand side management
  • domestic
  • heat pump
  • phase change materials
  • simulation

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  • Projects

    Research Output

    • 32 Citations
    • 1 Paper
  • Activities

    • 1 Participation in conference
    • 1 Consultancy

    13th International IBPSA Conference - BS'13

    Nicolas Kelly (Participant)

    25 Aug 201428 Aug 2014

    Activity: Participating in or organising an event typesParticipation in conference

    Phase change thermal storage study

    Nicolas Kelly (Consultant)


    Activity: Consultancy typesConsultancy

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