Pelagic food-webs in a changing Arctic: a trait-based perspective suggests a mode of resilience

Paul E Renaud, Malin Daase, Neil S Banas, Tove M Gabrielsen, Janne E Søreide, Øystein Varpe, Finlo Cottier, Stig Falk-Petersen, Claudia Halsband, Daniel Vogedes, Kristin Heggland, Jørgen Berge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Arctic marine ecosystems support fisheries of significant and increasing economic and nutritional value. Commercial stocks are sustained by pelagic food webs with relatively few keystone taxa mediating energy transfer to higher trophic levels, and it remains largely unknown how these taxa will be affected by changing climate and the influx of boreal taxa. Calanus species store large quantities of lipids, making these zooplankton a critical link in marine food-webs. The Arctic Calanus species are usually larger and, importantly, have been suggested to contain disproportionately larger lipid stores than their boreal congeners. Continued climate warming and subsequent changes in primary production regimes have been predicted to lead to a shift from the larger, lipid-rich Arctic species, Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus, toward the smaller, boreal Calanus finmarchicus in the European Arctic, with negative consequences for top predators. Our data show that lipid content is closely related to body size for all three species, i.e. is not a species-specific trait, and that there is considerable overlap in size between C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis. A trait-based life-history model was used to examine an idealized scenario where, in a changed Arctic with a longer period of primary production, C. glacialis- and C. hyperboreus-like copepods are indeed replaced by C. finmarchicus-like individuals, whether through competition, plasticity, hybridization, or evolution. However, the model finds that transfer of energy from primary producers to higher predators may actually be more efficient in this future scenario, because of the changes in generation length and population turnover rate that accompany the body-size shifts. These findings suggest that Arctic marine food webs may be more resilient to climate-related shifts in the Calanus complex than previously assumed.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1871-1881
Number of pages11
JournalICES Journal of Marine Science
Volume75
Issue number6
Early online date27 Jun 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2018

Fingerprint

Calanus
food webs
food web
Arctic region
Calanus finmarchicus
lipid
primary production
energy transfer
body size
climate
primary productivity
predator
lipids
predators
marine ecosystem
trophic level
plasticity
energy
zooplankton
turnover

Keywords

  • marine ecosystems
  • fisheries
  • commercial stock

Cite this

Renaud, P. E., Daase, M., Banas, N. S., Gabrielsen, T. M., Søreide, J. E., Varpe, Ø., ... Berge, J. (2018). Pelagic food-webs in a changing Arctic: a trait-based perspective suggests a mode of resilience. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 75(6), 1871-1881. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsy063
Renaud, Paul E ; Daase, Malin ; Banas, Neil S ; Gabrielsen, Tove M ; Søreide, Janne E ; Varpe, Øystein ; Cottier, Finlo ; Falk-Petersen, Stig ; Halsband, Claudia ; Vogedes, Daniel ; Heggland, Kristin ; Berge, Jørgen. / Pelagic food-webs in a changing Arctic : a trait-based perspective suggests a mode of resilience. In: ICES Journal of Marine Science. 2018 ; Vol. 75, No. 6. pp. 1871-1881.
@article{33dd0f015a91442881e12061019211c4,
title = "Pelagic food-webs in a changing Arctic: a trait-based perspective suggests a mode of resilience",
abstract = "Arctic marine ecosystems support fisheries of significant and increasing economic and nutritional value. Commercial stocks are sustained by pelagic food webs with relatively few keystone taxa mediating energy transfer to higher trophic levels, and it remains largely unknown how these taxa will be affected by changing climate and the influx of boreal taxa. Calanus species store large quantities of lipids, making these zooplankton a critical link in marine food-webs. The Arctic Calanus species are usually larger and, importantly, have been suggested to contain disproportionately larger lipid stores than their boreal congeners. Continued climate warming and subsequent changes in primary production regimes have been predicted to lead to a shift from the larger, lipid-rich Arctic species, Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus, toward the smaller, boreal Calanus finmarchicus in the European Arctic, with negative consequences for top predators. Our data show that lipid content is closely related to body size for all three species, i.e. is not a species-specific trait, and that there is considerable overlap in size between C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis. A trait-based life-history model was used to examine an idealized scenario where, in a changed Arctic with a longer period of primary production, C. glacialis- and C. hyperboreus-like copepods are indeed replaced by C. finmarchicus-like individuals, whether through competition, plasticity, hybridization, or evolution. However, the model finds that transfer of energy from primary producers to higher predators may actually be more efficient in this future scenario, because of the changes in generation length and population turnover rate that accompany the body-size shifts. These findings suggest that Arctic marine food webs may be more resilient to climate-related shifts in the Calanus complex than previously assumed.",
keywords = "marine ecosystems, fisheries, commercial stock",
author = "Renaud, {Paul E} and Malin Daase and Banas, {Neil S} and Gabrielsen, {Tove M} and S{\o}reide, {Janne E} and {\O}ystein Varpe and Finlo Cottier and Stig Falk-Petersen and Claudia Halsband and Daniel Vogedes and Kristin Heggland and J{\o}rgen Berge",
year = "2018",
month = "12",
day = "31",
doi = "10.1093/icesjms/fsy063",
language = "English",
volume = "75",
pages = "1871--1881",
journal = "ICES Journal of Marine Science",
issn = "1054-3139",
number = "6",

}

Renaud, PE, Daase, M, Banas, NS, Gabrielsen, TM, Søreide, JE, Varpe, Ø, Cottier, F, Falk-Petersen, S, Halsband, C, Vogedes, D, Heggland, K & Berge, J 2018, 'Pelagic food-webs in a changing Arctic: a trait-based perspective suggests a mode of resilience' ICES Journal of Marine Science, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 1871-1881. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsy063

Pelagic food-webs in a changing Arctic : a trait-based perspective suggests a mode of resilience. / Renaud, Paul E; Daase, Malin; Banas, Neil S; Gabrielsen, Tove M; Søreide, Janne E; Varpe, Øystein; Cottier, Finlo; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Halsband, Claudia; Vogedes, Daniel; Heggland, Kristin; Berge, Jørgen.

In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 75, No. 6, 31.12.2018, p. 1871-1881.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pelagic food-webs in a changing Arctic

T2 - ICES Journal of Marine Science

AU - Renaud, Paul E

AU - Daase, Malin

AU - Banas, Neil S

AU - Gabrielsen, Tove M

AU - Søreide, Janne E

AU - Varpe, Øystein

AU - Cottier, Finlo

AU - Falk-Petersen, Stig

AU - Halsband, Claudia

AU - Vogedes, Daniel

AU - Heggland, Kristin

AU - Berge, Jørgen

PY - 2018/12/31

Y1 - 2018/12/31

N2 - Arctic marine ecosystems support fisheries of significant and increasing economic and nutritional value. Commercial stocks are sustained by pelagic food webs with relatively few keystone taxa mediating energy transfer to higher trophic levels, and it remains largely unknown how these taxa will be affected by changing climate and the influx of boreal taxa. Calanus species store large quantities of lipids, making these zooplankton a critical link in marine food-webs. The Arctic Calanus species are usually larger and, importantly, have been suggested to contain disproportionately larger lipid stores than their boreal congeners. Continued climate warming and subsequent changes in primary production regimes have been predicted to lead to a shift from the larger, lipid-rich Arctic species, Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus, toward the smaller, boreal Calanus finmarchicus in the European Arctic, with negative consequences for top predators. Our data show that lipid content is closely related to body size for all three species, i.e. is not a species-specific trait, and that there is considerable overlap in size between C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis. A trait-based life-history model was used to examine an idealized scenario where, in a changed Arctic with a longer period of primary production, C. glacialis- and C. hyperboreus-like copepods are indeed replaced by C. finmarchicus-like individuals, whether through competition, plasticity, hybridization, or evolution. However, the model finds that transfer of energy from primary producers to higher predators may actually be more efficient in this future scenario, because of the changes in generation length and population turnover rate that accompany the body-size shifts. These findings suggest that Arctic marine food webs may be more resilient to climate-related shifts in the Calanus complex than previously assumed.

AB - Arctic marine ecosystems support fisheries of significant and increasing economic and nutritional value. Commercial stocks are sustained by pelagic food webs with relatively few keystone taxa mediating energy transfer to higher trophic levels, and it remains largely unknown how these taxa will be affected by changing climate and the influx of boreal taxa. Calanus species store large quantities of lipids, making these zooplankton a critical link in marine food-webs. The Arctic Calanus species are usually larger and, importantly, have been suggested to contain disproportionately larger lipid stores than their boreal congeners. Continued climate warming and subsequent changes in primary production regimes have been predicted to lead to a shift from the larger, lipid-rich Arctic species, Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus, toward the smaller, boreal Calanus finmarchicus in the European Arctic, with negative consequences for top predators. Our data show that lipid content is closely related to body size for all three species, i.e. is not a species-specific trait, and that there is considerable overlap in size between C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis. A trait-based life-history model was used to examine an idealized scenario where, in a changed Arctic with a longer period of primary production, C. glacialis- and C. hyperboreus-like copepods are indeed replaced by C. finmarchicus-like individuals, whether through competition, plasticity, hybridization, or evolution. However, the model finds that transfer of energy from primary producers to higher predators may actually be more efficient in this future scenario, because of the changes in generation length and population turnover rate that accompany the body-size shifts. These findings suggest that Arctic marine food webs may be more resilient to climate-related shifts in the Calanus complex than previously assumed.

KW - marine ecosystems

KW - fisheries

KW - commercial stock

UR - https://academic.oup.com/icesjms

U2 - 10.1093/icesjms/fsy063

DO - 10.1093/icesjms/fsy063

M3 - Article

VL - 75

SP - 1871

EP - 1881

JO - ICES Journal of Marine Science

JF - ICES Journal of Marine Science

SN - 1054-3139

IS - 6

ER -