Patterns of declining zooplankton energy in the Northeast Atlantic as an indicator for marine survival of Atlantic salmon

Emma Tyldesley, Neil S. Banas, Graeme Diack, Richard Kennedy, Jonathan Gillson, David G. Johns, Colin Bull

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Downloads (Pure)


Return rates of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from the sea to European rivers have declined in recent decades. The first months at sea are critical for growth and survival; recent evidence suggests that reduced food availability may be a contributory factor to the observed declines. Here, zooplankton abundance data are used to derive a measure of prey energy available to forage fish prey of salmon during early marine migration. This zooplankton prey energy has significantly and dramatically declined over much of the Northeast Atlantic, and specifically within key salmon migration domains, over the past 60 years. Marine return rates from a set of southern European populations are found to exhibit clustering not entirely predictable from geographical proximity. Variability in grouped return rates from these populations is correlated with zooplankton energy on a range of scales, demonstrating the potential use of zooplankton energy as an indicator of salmon marine survival. Comparison with environmental variables derived from ocean model reanalysis data suggests zooplankton energy is regulated by a combination of climate change impacts on ecosystem productivity and multi-decadal variability in water mass influence along the migration routes.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberfsae077
Number of pages21
JournalICES Journal of Marine Science
Early online date22 Jun 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Jun 2024


  • Salmo salar
  • marine survival
  • ecosystem-based management
  • forage fish larvae
  • zooplankton
  • Calanus
  • copepods
  • oceanography
  • North Atlantic Ocean
  • continuous plankton recorder


Dive into the research topics of 'Patterns of declining zooplankton energy in the Northeast Atlantic as an indicator for marine survival of Atlantic salmon'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this