Patterns and universals of adult romantic attachment across 62 cultural regions: are models of self and other pancultural constructs?

Kevin Durkin, David P. Schmitt, Lidia Alcalay, Melissa Allensworth, Juri Allik, Lara Ault, Ivars Austers, Kevin L. Bennett, Gabriel Bianchi, Fredrick Boholst, Mary Ann Borg-Cunen, Johan Braeckman, Edwin G. Brainerd, Leo Gerard A. Caral, Gabrielle Caron, Maria Martina Casullo, Michael Cunningham, Ikuo Daibo, Eros De Souza

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As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, a total of 17,804 participants from 62 cultural regions completed the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ), a self-reportmeasure of adult romantic attachment. Correlational analyses within each culture suggested that the Model of Self and the Model of Other scales of the RQ were psychometrically valid within most cultures. Contrary to expectations, the Model of Self and Model of Other dimensions of the RQ did not underlie the four-category model of attachment in the same way across all cultures. Analyses of specific attachment styles revealed that secure romantic attachmentwas normative in 79% of cultures and that preoccupied romantic attachment was particularly prevalent in East Asian cultures. Finally, the romantic attachment profiles of individual nations were correlated with sociocultural indicators in ways that supported evolutionary theories of romantic attachment and basic human mating strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)367-402
Number of pages35
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2004


  • romantic attachment
  • culture
  • internal working models
  • human mating strategies

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