Patterning behavior of hybrid buoyancy-Marangoni Convection in inclined layers heated from below

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Alongside classical effects driven by gravity or surface tension in non‐isothermal fluids, the present experimental study concentrates on other exotic (poorly known) modes of convection, which are enabled in a fluid layer delimited from below by a hot plate and unbounded from above when its container is inclined to the horizontal direction. By means of a concerted approach based on the application of a thermographic visualization technique, multiple temperature measurements at different points and a posteriori computer‐based reconstruction of the spatial distribution of wavelength, it is shown that this fluid‐dynamic system is prone to develop a rich set of patterns. These include (but are not limited to), spatially localized (compact) cells, longitudinal wavy rolls, various defects produced by other instabilities and finger‐like structures resulting from an interesting roll pinching mechanism (by which a single longitudinal roll can be split into two neighboring rolls with smaller wavelength). Through parametric variation of the tilt angle, the imposed temperature difference and the volume of liquid employed, it is inferred that the observable dynamics are driven by the ability of gravity‐induced shear flow to break the in‐plane isotropy of the system, the relative importance of surface‐tension‐driven and buoyancy effects, and the spatially varying depth of the layer. Some effort is provided to identify universality classes and similarities with other out-of‐equilibrium thermal systems, which have attracted significant attention in the literature.
Original languageEnglish
Article number12
Number of pages30
Issue number1
Early online date29 Dec 2022
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jan 2023


  • Marangoni convection
  • hydrothermal wave
  • solid particles
  • patterning behavior


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