Parametric finite-element studies on the effect of tool shape in friction stir welding

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The success of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process, and the weld quality produced, depends significantly on the design of the welding tool. In this paper the effect of variation in various tool geometry parameters on FSW process outcomes, during the plunge stage, were investigated. Specifically the tool shoulder surface angle and the ratio of the shoulder radius to pin radius on tool reaction force, tool torque, heat generation, temperature distribution and size of the weld zone were investigated. The studies were carried out numerically using the finite element method. The welding process used AA2024 aluminium alloy plates with a thickness of 3 mm. It was found that, in plunge stage, the larger the pin radius the higher force and torque the tool experiences and the greater heat generated. It is also found that the shoulder angle has very little effect on energy dissipation as well as little effect on temperature distribution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1161-1173
Number of pages13
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2010


  • finite element method
  • energy dissipation
  • temperature distribution
  • friction stir welding
  • tool shape

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