Palladium extraction following metal-catalyzed reactions: recent advances and applications in the pharmaceutical industry

Marina Economidou, Nisha Mistry, Katherine M. P. Wheelhouse, David M. Lindsay

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
44 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are used extensively in the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the potential contamination of products with elemental impurities is an issue that any process chemist must consider in the design of a plant process. This is not only to meet regulatory limits, which is unequivocally the primary reason for metal scavenging, but also due to the high cost and limited supply of palladium, driving the need for recovery to recycle. This Review addresses the current approaches for palladium removal from organic solutions, with selected examples of their successful application in industrial-scale processes for pharmaceutical production. Palladium scavengers have been categorized based on their mode of action, i.e., adsorption, extraction/precipitation, and crystallization, to provide a summary of the current state-of-the-art in metal removal. Practical considerations when choosing metal removal methods are briefly discussed, illustrating their intrinsic advantages and drawbacks.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1585-1615
Number of pages31
JournalOrganic Process Research and Development
Volume27
Issue number9
Early online date6 Sept 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2023

Keywords

  • catalysis
  • scavenging
  • palladium
  • extraction

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