P and M class phasor measurement unit algorithms using adaptive cascaded filters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

119 Citations (Scopus)
605 Downloads (Pure)


The new standard C37.118.1 lays down strict performance limits for phasor measurement units (PMUs) under steady-state and dynamic conditions. Reference algorithms are also presented for the P (performance) and M (measurement) class PMUs. In this paper, the performance of these algorithms is analysed during some key signal scenarios, particularly those of off-nominal frequency, frequency ramps, and harmonic contamination. While it is found that total vector error (TVE) accuracy is relatively easy to achieve, the reference algorithm is not able to achieve a useful ROCOF (rate of change of frequency) accuracy. Instead, this paper presents alternative algorithms for P and M class PMUs which use adaptive filtering techniques in real time at up to 10 kHz sample rates, allowing consistent accuracy to be maintained across a ±33% frequency range. ROCOF errors can be reduced by factors of >40 for P class and >100 for M class devices.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1447 - 1459
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jun 2013


  • power system measurements
  • fourier transforms
  • frequency measurement
  • power system state estimation
  • phase estimation
  • power system stability

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  • Research Output

    Dealing with front-end white noise on differentiated measurements such as frequency and ROCOF in power systems

    Roscoe, A. J., Blair, S. M., Dickerson, W. & Rietveld, G., 25 Apr 2018, In : IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement . 14 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Open Access
  • 9 Citations (Scopus)
    35 Downloads (Pure)
    Open Access
  • 6 Citations (Scopus)
    468 Downloads (Pure)

    PMU (algorithm) Testing to C37.118.1(a) in software

    Roscoe, A., 3 Jun 2015.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceSpeech

    Open Access
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