Low Voltage Direct Current (LVDC) systems have recently been recognised as one of the key enabling technologies that can facilitate the connection of more distributed renewables with improved efficiency and enhanced controllability. This is in addition to the potential provision of increased power flow capacity which is required to meet the anticipated growth in electric transport and heat demand. However, there is still a shortage of mature experience and practical technical solutions that can support the uptake of such systems and increase commercial interest. One of the barriers is the lack of standards necessary to increase industry confidence and for the development of cost effective technical solutions that will accelerate the commercialization of LVDC technologies. Most of the existing international standards focus on alternating current (ac) systems with limited areas covering direct current (dc). Recently, new standard activities at national and international levels have begun to cover specific LVDC applications. However, it is still not clear whether these activities, in addition to existing standards, are sufficient and comprehensive to provide the necessary tools for best practice system design. This paper therefore reviews and evaluates the available LVDC standards within the context of the establish ac system to determine the state of the art of dc standardization and the areas where future work is required.
- distributed system
- low voltage direct current
- LVDC power distribution networks