Oscillatory and turbulent flows of liquid metals in differentially heated systems with horizontal and non-horizontal walls

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Non isothermal flows of liquid metals induced by buoyancy are central to many advanced technological applications in materials science, often at the cutting-edge of modern engineering. They have indeed a significant impact on the production of many materials obtained via the solidification of a melt. The quality and mechanical or electrical properties of the resulting solids and crystals are adversely affected by thermogravitational convection as it can induce defects in their atomic or molecular structure (this is the case, e.g., of typical crystal-growth techniques such as the horizontal Bridgman (HB), the Floating zone (FZ) or the Czochralski (CZ) methods). The present chapter aims to present a focused review of landmark (past) and very recent contributions on the nature, structure and hierarchy of instabilities of this type of convection. In particular, starting from simple situations corresponding to steady and laminar flows and moving towards fully developed turbulence, we present the typical hydrodynamic and hydrothermal disturbances emerging in differentially heated liquid metals and clarify the relationship among their properties and general influential factors such as: the degree of confinement (aspect ratio), morphology (wall orientation in space) and spatial degrees of freedom (number of active dimensions) of the domain hosting the melt. Manifestations of these modes of convection (including, but not limited to, transverse waves travelling in the downstream or in the upstream direction, standing waves, modulated pulso-traveling disturbances, longitudinal waves and multi-wave patterns) are discussed in detail. More complex situations are placed in the context of existing theories on turbulence in fluids and treated using concepts, methods and tools typical of the chaotic systems analysis.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationRecent Studies in Materials Science
EditorsPatrick R. Lind
Place of PublicationHauppauge, NY
Chapter3
Pages151-209
Number of pages59
Publication statusPublished - 30 Mar 2019

Publication series

NameMaterials Science and Technologies

Fingerprint

Liquid metals
Turbulent flow
Flow of fluids
Turbulence
Crystal growth from melt
Chaotic systems
Steady flow
Materials science
Crystallization
Buoyancy
Laminar flow
Crystal growth
Molecular structure
Solidification
Aspect ratio
Electric properties
Hydrodynamics
Systems analysis
Mechanical properties
Defects

Keywords

  • liquid metals
  • thermogravitational convection
  • atomic structure
  • molecular structure

Cite this

Lappa, M., & Ferialdi, H. (2019). Oscillatory and turbulent flows of liquid metals in differentially heated systems with horizontal and non-horizontal walls. In P. R. Lind (Ed.), Recent Studies in Materials Science (pp. 151-209). (Materials Science and Technologies). Hauppauge, NY.
Lappa, Marcello ; Ferialdi, Hermes. / Oscillatory and turbulent flows of liquid metals in differentially heated systems with horizontal and non-horizontal walls. Recent Studies in Materials Science. editor / Patrick R. Lind. Hauppauge, NY, 2019. pp. 151-209 (Materials Science and Technologies).
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Lappa, M & Ferialdi, H 2019, Oscillatory and turbulent flows of liquid metals in differentially heated systems with horizontal and non-horizontal walls. in PR Lind (ed.), Recent Studies in Materials Science. Materials Science and Technologies, Hauppauge, NY, pp. 151-209.

Oscillatory and turbulent flows of liquid metals in differentially heated systems with horizontal and non-horizontal walls. / Lappa, Marcello; Ferialdi, Hermes.

Recent Studies in Materials Science. ed. / Patrick R. Lind. Hauppauge, NY, 2019. p. 151-209 (Materials Science and Technologies).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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N2 - Non isothermal flows of liquid metals induced by buoyancy are central to many advanced technological applications in materials science, often at the cutting-edge of modern engineering. They have indeed a significant impact on the production of many materials obtained via the solidification of a melt. The quality and mechanical or electrical properties of the resulting solids and crystals are adversely affected by thermogravitational convection as it can induce defects in their atomic or molecular structure (this is the case, e.g., of typical crystal-growth techniques such as the horizontal Bridgman (HB), the Floating zone (FZ) or the Czochralski (CZ) methods). The present chapter aims to present a focused review of landmark (past) and very recent contributions on the nature, structure and hierarchy of instabilities of this type of convection. In particular, starting from simple situations corresponding to steady and laminar flows and moving towards fully developed turbulence, we present the typical hydrodynamic and hydrothermal disturbances emerging in differentially heated liquid metals and clarify the relationship among their properties and general influential factors such as: the degree of confinement (aspect ratio), morphology (wall orientation in space) and spatial degrees of freedom (number of active dimensions) of the domain hosting the melt. Manifestations of these modes of convection (including, but not limited to, transverse waves travelling in the downstream or in the upstream direction, standing waves, modulated pulso-traveling disturbances, longitudinal waves and multi-wave patterns) are discussed in detail. More complex situations are placed in the context of existing theories on turbulence in fluids and treated using concepts, methods and tools typical of the chaotic systems analysis.

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Lappa M, Ferialdi H. Oscillatory and turbulent flows of liquid metals in differentially heated systems with horizontal and non-horizontal walls. In Lind PR, editor, Recent Studies in Materials Science. Hauppauge, NY. 2019. p. 151-209. (Materials Science and Technologies).