Ordered Landmarks in Planning

J. Hoffmann, J. Porteous, L. Sebastia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

173 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Many known planning tasks have inherent constraints concerning the best order in which to achieve the goals. A number of research efforts have been made to detect such constraints and to use them for guiding search, in the hope of speeding up the planning process. We go beyond the previous approaches by considering ordering constraints not only over the (top-level) goals, but also over the sub-goals that will necessarily arise during planning. Landmarks are facts that must be true at some point in every valid solution plan. We extend Koehler and Hoffmann's definition of reasonable orders between top level goals to the more general case of landmarks. We show how landmarks can be found, how their reasonable orders can be approximated, and how this information can be used to decompose a given planning task into several smaller sub-tasks. Our methodology is completely domain- and planner-independent. The implementation demonstrates that the approach can yield significant runtime performance improvements when used as a control loop around state-of-the-art sub-optimal planning systems, as exemplified by FF and LPG.
LanguageEnglish
Pages215-278
Number of pages63
JournalJournal of Artificial Intelligence Research
Volume22
Publication statusPublished - 2004

Fingerprint

Planning
Liquefied petroleum gas

Cite this

Hoffmann, J., Porteous, J., & Sebastia, L. (2004). Ordered Landmarks in Planning. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 22, 215-278.
Hoffmann, J. ; Porteous, J. ; Sebastia, L. / Ordered Landmarks in Planning. In: Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research. 2004 ; Vol. 22. pp. 215-278.
@article{ab1b2468893f411e93be0927b4595698,
title = "Ordered Landmarks in Planning",
abstract = "Many known planning tasks have inherent constraints concerning the best order in which to achieve the goals. A number of research efforts have been made to detect such constraints and to use them for guiding search, in the hope of speeding up the planning process. We go beyond the previous approaches by considering ordering constraints not only over the (top-level) goals, but also over the sub-goals that will necessarily arise during planning. Landmarks are facts that must be true at some point in every valid solution plan. We extend Koehler and Hoffmann's definition of reasonable orders between top level goals to the more general case of landmarks. We show how landmarks can be found, how their reasonable orders can be approximated, and how this information can be used to decompose a given planning task into several smaller sub-tasks. Our methodology is completely domain- and planner-independent. The implementation demonstrates that the approach can yield significant runtime performance improvements when used as a control loop around state-of-the-art sub-optimal planning systems, as exemplified by FF and LPG.",
author = "J. Hoffmann and J. Porteous and L. Sebastia",
year = "2004",
language = "English",
volume = "22",
pages = "215--278",
journal = "Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research",
issn = "1076-9757",

}

Hoffmann, J, Porteous, J & Sebastia, L 2004, 'Ordered Landmarks in Planning' Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, vol. 22, pp. 215-278.

Ordered Landmarks in Planning. / Hoffmann, J.; Porteous, J.; Sebastia, L.

In: Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, Vol. 22, 2004, p. 215-278.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ordered Landmarks in Planning

AU - Hoffmann, J.

AU - Porteous, J.

AU - Sebastia, L.

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - Many known planning tasks have inherent constraints concerning the best order in which to achieve the goals. A number of research efforts have been made to detect such constraints and to use them for guiding search, in the hope of speeding up the planning process. We go beyond the previous approaches by considering ordering constraints not only over the (top-level) goals, but also over the sub-goals that will necessarily arise during planning. Landmarks are facts that must be true at some point in every valid solution plan. We extend Koehler and Hoffmann's definition of reasonable orders between top level goals to the more general case of landmarks. We show how landmarks can be found, how their reasonable orders can be approximated, and how this information can be used to decompose a given planning task into several smaller sub-tasks. Our methodology is completely domain- and planner-independent. The implementation demonstrates that the approach can yield significant runtime performance improvements when used as a control loop around state-of-the-art sub-optimal planning systems, as exemplified by FF and LPG.

AB - Many known planning tasks have inherent constraints concerning the best order in which to achieve the goals. A number of research efforts have been made to detect such constraints and to use them for guiding search, in the hope of speeding up the planning process. We go beyond the previous approaches by considering ordering constraints not only over the (top-level) goals, but also over the sub-goals that will necessarily arise during planning. Landmarks are facts that must be true at some point in every valid solution plan. We extend Koehler and Hoffmann's definition of reasonable orders between top level goals to the more general case of landmarks. We show how landmarks can be found, how their reasonable orders can be approximated, and how this information can be used to decompose a given planning task into several smaller sub-tasks. Our methodology is completely domain- and planner-independent. The implementation demonstrates that the approach can yield significant runtime performance improvements when used as a control loop around state-of-the-art sub-optimal planning systems, as exemplified by FF and LPG.

UR - http://www.jair.org/papers/paper1492.html

M3 - Article

VL - 22

SP - 215

EP - 278

JO - Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

T2 - Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

JF - Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

SN - 1076-9757

ER -

Hoffmann J, Porteous J, Sebastia L. Ordered Landmarks in Planning. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research. 2004;22:215-278.