Optogenetic acidification of synaptic vesicles and lysosomes

Benjamin R Rost, Franziska Schneider, M Katharina Grauel, Christian Wozny, Claudia G Bentz, Anja Blessing, Tanja Rosenmund, Thomas J Jentsch, Dietmar Schmitz, Peter Hegemann, Christian Rosenmund

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51 Citations (Scopus)
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Acidification is required for the function of many intracellular organelles, but methods to acutely manipulate their intraluminal pH have not been available. Here we present a targeting strategy to selectively express the light-driven proton pump Arch3 on synaptic vesicles. Our new tool, pHoenix, can functionally replace endogenous proton pumps, enabling optogenetic control of vesicular acidification and neurotransmitter accumulation. Under physiological conditions, glutamatergic vesicles are nearly full, as additional vesicle acidification with pHoenix only slightly increased the quantal size. By contrast, we found that incompletely filled vesicles exhibited a lower release probability than full vesicles, suggesting preferential exocytosis of vesicles with high transmitter content. Our subcellular targeting approach can be transferred to other organelles, as demonstrated for a pHoenix variant that allows light-activated acidification of lysosomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1845-1852
Number of pages8
JournalNature Neuroscience
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 9 Nov 2015


  • endocytosis
  • optogenetics
  • neurotransmitters
  • transporters in the nervous system

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