Optimization study of weld geometry in the tandem submerged arc welding process

Mohammad Hadi Kakaie-Lafdaini, Ismaeil Ghadiri-Zahrani, Alexander Galloway

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


For any welded component, the weld geometry is a determinative criterion that has a strong influence on the mechanical integrity of the joint. It is therefore important that the weld geometry is adequately considered when establishing the design of the component being welded. Based on the tandem submerged arc welding process, this study reports on an experimental and optimization investigation of the weld geometry characteristics such as bead width, reinforcement form factor and penetration shape factor. The selected process parameters were welding amperage and welding voltage, and these were initially investigated to determine their effect on weld geometry. From this, the results indicated that all developed models for these outputs predicted the behavior of the inputs with high precision. Thus, an optimal condition was established in which the penetration depth was maximized, and hence, a multi-response optimization was determined. Also, the conditions in which the weld reinforcement form factor (W/R) and penetration shape factor (W/P) were minimized are determined and validated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1068-1077
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture
Issue number6
Early online date18 Jun 2014
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015


  • submerged arc welding
  • bead width
  • reinforcement form factor
  • penetration shape factor
  • optimisation


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