Optimisation of a smart energy hub with integration of combined heat and power, demand side response and energy storage

Haijie Qi, Hong Yue, Jiangfeng Zhang, Kwok L. Lo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


An operational cost minimisation model is established for a smart energy hub (S.E. Hub) consisting of a combined heat and power (CHP) unit, a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, and thermal and electricity storage units. The optimal operation of CHP is combined with the load management of HVAC under a time-of-use (TOU) tariff. The heat and power split ratio of CHP is dynamically determined during the operation. The scheduling of HVAC load and the charging/discharging of energy storage systems are also determined through the optimisation model. The energy management system can therefore shift the load demand and manage energy supply simultaneously. System operation requirements and environment factors including the outdoor air-temperature variation, seasonal variation, and battery degradation are considered. Comprehensive case studies are carried out to examine the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, from which insights are obtained for different energy management strategies and possible upgrade of S.E. Hub. Simulation results reveal that dynamic control of the CHP heat and power split ratio is an effective way to save the total operational cost, and a clear cost saving is shown through the proposed optimal operation strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Article number121268
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
Early online date19 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • combined heat and power
  • demand side response
  • HVAC
  • ventilation
  • air conditioning
  • energy storage system
  • smart energy hub


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