Optimisation of a lipid based oral delivery system containing A/Panama influenza haemagglutinin

J.F.S. Mann, V.A. Ferro, A. Mullen, L. Tetley, M. Mullen, K.C. Carter, J. Alexander, W.H. Stimson

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58 Citations (Scopus)


Vaccine antigens administered by the oral route are often degraded by gastric secretions during gastrointestinal transit. This necessitates larger and more frequent doses of antigen for vaccination. A delivery system, which overcomes this, is a lipid vesicle containing bile salts (bilosome), which prevents antigen degradation and enhances mucosal penetration. The effect of bilosome formulation modification on vaccine transit efficacy across the mucosa was determined. Specific antibody levels were assessed by end-point titre ELISA and the subclasses determined. Significant IgG1 titres were induced when the protein loading was doubled from 15 to 30 μg (P=0.009) and was equivalent to antigen administration by the subcutaneous route. No IgG2a was induced, indicating the generation of a TH2 response. Significant mucosal IgA levels were also observed with this treatment group (P=0.05).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2425-2429
Number of pages4
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 2004


  • influenza
  • oral immunisation
  • lipid vesicles
  • immunology
  • pharmacology


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