Optimisation and comparison of generators with different magnet materials for a 6MW offshore direct drive wind turbine

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

In the past few years interest in the use of low speed permanent magnet generators for direct-drive wind turbine generator applications has increased significantly. The significant fluctuations in NdFeB magnet prices has encouraged designers to optimise magnet utilisation and to look at alternative magnet materials for wind turbine electrical generators. In this paper an analytical design model is developed for 6 MW offshore direct-drive wind turbine generators using different magnet materials (one with surface mounted NdFeB and another with flux concentrating ferrite magnet). Finite element method models are used to check key dependent variables calculated by the analytical models. The generator designs are optimised using a hybrid optimisation method incorporating a Genetic Algorithm and Pattern Search approaches. This is applied for four different objective functions, the first two which concentrate on maximising rated torque per unit magnet mass or unit of generator active material cost. They are simple and quick to execute but prioritise cost reduction and ignore lower efficiencies leading to lower turbine energy yields and hence poor cost of energy. A third objective function which seeks to minimise the sum of the generator active material cost and the costs of lost revenue over a finite number of operational years. This gives similar results to a fourth objective function which is an explicit turbine cost of energy calculation. The cost of NdFeB magnets affect the cost of energy of the surface mounted generator which tested with different cost €40/kg, €60/kg and €80/kg. The ferrite magnet generator being better when the NdFeB magnet price rises to €80/kg.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publication8th IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD 2016)
Number of pages6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Apr 2016
Event8th IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives - The Hilton Hotel, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Duration: 19 Apr 201621 Apr 2016

Conference

Conference8th IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives
Abbreviated titlePEMD 2016
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityGlasgow
Period19/04/1621/04/16

Fingerprint

Wind turbines
Magnets
Costs
Turbogenerators
Ferrite
Turbines
Cost reduction
Permanent magnets
Analytical models
Torque
Genetic algorithms
Fluxes
Finite element method

Keywords

  • optimisation
  • permanent magnet machine
  • wind turbine generator
  • tower and foundation cost
  • hybrid algorithms
  • pattern search algorithm
  • genetic algorithm
  • ferrite magnet machine

Cite this

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title = "Optimisation and comparison of generators with different magnet materials for a 6MW offshore direct drive wind turbine",
abstract = "In the past few years interest in the use of low speed permanent magnet generators for direct-drive wind turbine generator applications has increased significantly. The significant fluctuations in NdFeB magnet prices has encouraged designers to optimise magnet utilisation and to look at alternative magnet materials for wind turbine electrical generators. In this paper an analytical design model is developed for 6 MW offshore direct-drive wind turbine generators using different magnet materials (one with surface mounted NdFeB and another with flux concentrating ferrite magnet). Finite element method models are used to check key dependent variables calculated by the analytical models. The generator designs are optimised using a hybrid optimisation method incorporating a Genetic Algorithm and Pattern Search approaches. This is applied for four different objective functions, the first two which concentrate on maximising rated torque per unit magnet mass or unit of generator active material cost. They are simple and quick to execute but prioritise cost reduction and ignore lower efficiencies leading to lower turbine energy yields and hence poor cost of energy. A third objective function which seeks to minimise the sum of the generator active material cost and the costs of lost revenue over a finite number of operational years. This gives similar results to a fourth objective function which is an explicit turbine cost of energy calculation. The cost of NdFeB magnets affect the cost of energy of the surface mounted generator which tested with different cost €40/kg, €60/kg and €80/kg. The ferrite magnet generator being better when the NdFeB magnet price rises to €80/kg.",
keywords = "optimisation, permanent magnet machine, wind turbine generator , tower and foundation cost, hybrid algorithms, pattern search algorithm, genetic algorithm, ferrite magnet machine",
author = "Bhuiyan, {Nurul Azim} and Alasdair McDonald",
note = "This paper is a postprint of a paper submitted to and accepted for publication in 8th IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives and is subject to Institution of Engineering and Technology Copyright. The copy of record is available at IET Digital Library",
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month = "4",
day = "19",
doi = "10.1049/cp.2016.0300",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-1-78561-188-9",
booktitle = "8th IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD 2016)",

}

Bhuiyan, NA & McDonald, A 2016, Optimisation and comparison of generators with different magnet materials for a 6MW offshore direct drive wind turbine. in 8th IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD 2016). 8th IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 19/04/16. https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2016.0300

Optimisation and comparison of generators with different magnet materials for a 6MW offshore direct drive wind turbine. / Bhuiyan, Nurul Azim; McDonald, Alasdair.

8th IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD 2016). 2016.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution book

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T1 - Optimisation and comparison of generators with different magnet materials for a 6MW offshore direct drive wind turbine

AU - Bhuiyan, Nurul Azim

AU - McDonald, Alasdair

N1 - This paper is a postprint of a paper submitted to and accepted for publication in 8th IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives and is subject to Institution of Engineering and Technology Copyright. The copy of record is available at IET Digital Library

PY - 2016/4/19

Y1 - 2016/4/19

N2 - In the past few years interest in the use of low speed permanent magnet generators for direct-drive wind turbine generator applications has increased significantly. The significant fluctuations in NdFeB magnet prices has encouraged designers to optimise magnet utilisation and to look at alternative magnet materials for wind turbine electrical generators. In this paper an analytical design model is developed for 6 MW offshore direct-drive wind turbine generators using different magnet materials (one with surface mounted NdFeB and another with flux concentrating ferrite magnet). Finite element method models are used to check key dependent variables calculated by the analytical models. The generator designs are optimised using a hybrid optimisation method incorporating a Genetic Algorithm and Pattern Search approaches. This is applied for four different objective functions, the first two which concentrate on maximising rated torque per unit magnet mass or unit of generator active material cost. They are simple and quick to execute but prioritise cost reduction and ignore lower efficiencies leading to lower turbine energy yields and hence poor cost of energy. A third objective function which seeks to minimise the sum of the generator active material cost and the costs of lost revenue over a finite number of operational years. This gives similar results to a fourth objective function which is an explicit turbine cost of energy calculation. The cost of NdFeB magnets affect the cost of energy of the surface mounted generator which tested with different cost €40/kg, €60/kg and €80/kg. The ferrite magnet generator being better when the NdFeB magnet price rises to €80/kg.

AB - In the past few years interest in the use of low speed permanent magnet generators for direct-drive wind turbine generator applications has increased significantly. The significant fluctuations in NdFeB magnet prices has encouraged designers to optimise magnet utilisation and to look at alternative magnet materials for wind turbine electrical generators. In this paper an analytical design model is developed for 6 MW offshore direct-drive wind turbine generators using different magnet materials (one with surface mounted NdFeB and another with flux concentrating ferrite magnet). Finite element method models are used to check key dependent variables calculated by the analytical models. The generator designs are optimised using a hybrid optimisation method incorporating a Genetic Algorithm and Pattern Search approaches. This is applied for four different objective functions, the first two which concentrate on maximising rated torque per unit magnet mass or unit of generator active material cost. They are simple and quick to execute but prioritise cost reduction and ignore lower efficiencies leading to lower turbine energy yields and hence poor cost of energy. A third objective function which seeks to minimise the sum of the generator active material cost and the costs of lost revenue over a finite number of operational years. This gives similar results to a fourth objective function which is an explicit turbine cost of energy calculation. The cost of NdFeB magnets affect the cost of energy of the surface mounted generator which tested with different cost €40/kg, €60/kg and €80/kg. The ferrite magnet generator being better when the NdFeB magnet price rises to €80/kg.

KW - optimisation

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KW - tower and foundation cost

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