Optical wireless communications (OWC) are emerging as cost-effective and practical solutions to the congested radio frequency-based wireless technologies. As part of OWC, optical camera communications (OCC) have become very attractive, considering recent developments in cameras and the use of fitted cameras in smart devices. OCC together with visible light communications (VLC) is considered within the framework of the IEEE 802.15.7m standardization. OCCs based on both organic and inorganic light sources as well as cameras are being considered for low-rate transmissions and localization in indoor as well as outdoor short-range applications and within the framework of the IEEE 802.15.7m standardization together with VLC. This paper introduces the underlying principles of OCC and gives a comprehensive overview of this emerging technology with recent standardization activities in OCC. It also outlines the key technical issues such as mobility, coverage, interference, performance enhancement, etc. Future research directions and open issues are also presented.
- optical wireless communications (OWC)
- visible light communications (VLC)
- camera receiver
- wireless communications