Operation and maintenance for floating wind turbines: a review

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This paper reviews the existing literature surrounding floating offshore wind (FOW) operations and maintenance (O&M) models. A review of the technology is presented with a comparison with current practise for bottom-fixed offshore wind O&M activities. This article divides existing publications into the following categories: cost modelling, O&M modelling, and safety/limiting factors. A review of the case studies used within these publications shows trends towards development in Northern Europe. Factors considered during cost modelling are discussed with a review of levelised cost of energy results for the three main types of floating support structure. The key O&M inputs for FOW applications are identified and then analysed detailing the key differences between floating and bottom-fixed applications. Finally, the publications detail the impact of the motion of the turbine on O&M activities are discussed. Key areas of FOW O&M research are identified with details of current research gaps and recommendations for future work.
Original languageEnglish
Article number112499
Number of pages13
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Early online date4 May 2022
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2022


  • Offshore wind
  • Floating offshore wind
  • Operations and maintenance
  • Decision support modelling
  • Safety
  • Operational limits


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