On the ease of being green: an investigation of the inconvenience of electric vehicle charging

James Dixon, Peter Bach Andersen, Keith Bell, Chresten Træholt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This paper presents a quantitative investigation of the inconvenience of electric vehicle (EV) charging relative to internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) fuelling in terms of the time penalty likely to be experienced by drivers. A heuristic approach to deriving idealised charging schedules from over 39,000 week-long travel diaries from the UK National Travel Survey is presented in order to quantify the expected convenience parity — the point at which EV charging and ICEV fuelling are of comparable convenience — for combinations of battery capacity, charger power and access to charging at different locations (home, workplace and public destinations). It was found that although the majority — up to 95% — of individuals who can charge at home are expected to be able to reach convenience parity with battery sizes currently available in EV models at the ‘affordable’ end of the market, this is significantly less likely for those who rely on workplace or public charging — and particularly for those who must rely solely on en route charging. These individuals are expected to suffer considerable inconvenience associated with EV charging relative to ICEV fuelling, and although greater battery capacities and charger power ratings are expected to lessen this inconvenience, there remains a significant gap in the convenience of EV ownership between those who can charge while parked at home and those who cannot. Further analysis is carried out to long journeys that cannot be made on a single charge; ‘range anxiety’ being a major obstacle to widespread EV adoption. It was found that if drivers are compliant with the UK Highway Code in taking regular breaks on long journeys, fewer than 0.01% of trips are expected to be delayed by charging when using battery capacities of 40-60 kWh.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1-54
Number of pages54
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 7 Nov 2019

Fingerprint

electric vehicle
Electric vehicles
Fueling
Internal combustion engines
workplace
heuristics
ownership
road
market
battery
vehicle
combustion engine

Keywords

  • Electric Vehicles
  • Charging
  • Convenience
  • E-mobility

Cite this

@article{3da95d3fd7fd4fb08a5db92a79dd585f,
title = "On the ease of being green: an investigation of the inconvenience of electric vehicle charging",
abstract = "This paper presents a quantitative investigation of the inconvenience of electric vehicle (EV) charging relative to internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) fuelling in terms of the time penalty likely to be experienced by drivers. A heuristic approach to deriving idealised charging schedules from over 39,000 week-long travel diaries from the UK National Travel Survey is presented in order to quantify the expected convenience parity — the point at which EV charging and ICEV fuelling are of comparable convenience — for combinations of battery capacity, charger power and access to charging at different locations (home, workplace and public destinations). It was found that although the majority — up to 95{\%} — of individuals who can charge at home are expected to be able to reach convenience parity with battery sizes currently available in EV models at the ‘affordable’ end of the market, this is significantly less likely for those who rely on workplace or public charging — and particularly for those who must rely solely on en route charging. These individuals are expected to suffer considerable inconvenience associated with EV charging relative to ICEV fuelling, and although greater battery capacities and charger power ratings are expected to lessen this inconvenience, there remains a significant gap in the convenience of EV ownership between those who can charge while parked at home and those who cannot. Further analysis is carried out to long journeys that cannot be made on a single charge; ‘range anxiety’ being a major obstacle to widespread EV adoption. It was found that if drivers are compliant with the UK Highway Code in taking regular breaks on long journeys, fewer than 0.01{\%} of trips are expected to be delayed by charging when using battery capacities of 40-60 kWh.",
keywords = "Electric Vehicles, Charging, Convenience, E-mobility",
author = "James Dixon and Andersen, {Peter Bach} and Keith Bell and Chresten Tr{\ae}holt",
year = "2019",
month = "11",
day = "7",
language = "English",
pages = "1--54",
journal = "Applied Energy",
issn = "0306-2619",

}

On the ease of being green : an investigation of the inconvenience of electric vehicle charging. / Dixon, James; Andersen, Peter Bach; Bell, Keith; Træholt, Chresten.

In: Applied Energy, 07.11.2019, p. 1-54.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - On the ease of being green

T2 - Applied Energy

AU - Dixon, James

AU - Andersen, Peter Bach

AU - Bell, Keith

AU - Træholt, Chresten

PY - 2019/11/7

Y1 - 2019/11/7

N2 - This paper presents a quantitative investigation of the inconvenience of electric vehicle (EV) charging relative to internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) fuelling in terms of the time penalty likely to be experienced by drivers. A heuristic approach to deriving idealised charging schedules from over 39,000 week-long travel diaries from the UK National Travel Survey is presented in order to quantify the expected convenience parity — the point at which EV charging and ICEV fuelling are of comparable convenience — for combinations of battery capacity, charger power and access to charging at different locations (home, workplace and public destinations). It was found that although the majority — up to 95% — of individuals who can charge at home are expected to be able to reach convenience parity with battery sizes currently available in EV models at the ‘affordable’ end of the market, this is significantly less likely for those who rely on workplace or public charging — and particularly for those who must rely solely on en route charging. These individuals are expected to suffer considerable inconvenience associated with EV charging relative to ICEV fuelling, and although greater battery capacities and charger power ratings are expected to lessen this inconvenience, there remains a significant gap in the convenience of EV ownership between those who can charge while parked at home and those who cannot. Further analysis is carried out to long journeys that cannot be made on a single charge; ‘range anxiety’ being a major obstacle to widespread EV adoption. It was found that if drivers are compliant with the UK Highway Code in taking regular breaks on long journeys, fewer than 0.01% of trips are expected to be delayed by charging when using battery capacities of 40-60 kWh.

AB - This paper presents a quantitative investigation of the inconvenience of electric vehicle (EV) charging relative to internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) fuelling in terms of the time penalty likely to be experienced by drivers. A heuristic approach to deriving idealised charging schedules from over 39,000 week-long travel diaries from the UK National Travel Survey is presented in order to quantify the expected convenience parity — the point at which EV charging and ICEV fuelling are of comparable convenience — for combinations of battery capacity, charger power and access to charging at different locations (home, workplace and public destinations). It was found that although the majority — up to 95% — of individuals who can charge at home are expected to be able to reach convenience parity with battery sizes currently available in EV models at the ‘affordable’ end of the market, this is significantly less likely for those who rely on workplace or public charging — and particularly for those who must rely solely on en route charging. These individuals are expected to suffer considerable inconvenience associated with EV charging relative to ICEV fuelling, and although greater battery capacities and charger power ratings are expected to lessen this inconvenience, there remains a significant gap in the convenience of EV ownership between those who can charge while parked at home and those who cannot. Further analysis is carried out to long journeys that cannot be made on a single charge; ‘range anxiety’ being a major obstacle to widespread EV adoption. It was found that if drivers are compliant with the UK Highway Code in taking regular breaks on long journeys, fewer than 0.01% of trips are expected to be delayed by charging when using battery capacities of 40-60 kWh.

KW - Electric Vehicles

KW - Charging

KW - Convenience

KW - E-mobility

UR - https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/applied-energy

M3 - Article

SP - 1

EP - 54

JO - Applied Energy

JF - Applied Energy

SN - 0306-2619

ER -