This paper initiates the study of shortening universal cycles (u-cycles) and universal words (u-words) for permutations either by using incomparable elements, or by using non-deterministic symbols. The latter approach is similar in nature to the recent relevant studies for the de Bruijn sequences. A particular result we obtain in this paper is that u-words for n-permutations exist of lengths n!+(1−k)(n−1) for k=0,1,…,(n−2)!.
- universal cycles
- universal words