On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control

Michael Kues, Christian Reimer, Piotr Roztocki, Luis Romero Cortés, Stefania Sciara, Benjamin Wetzel, Yanbing Zhang, Alfonso Cino, Sai T. Chu, Brent E. Little, David J. Moss, Lucia Caspani, José Azaña, Roberto Morandotti

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

156 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Optical quantum states based on entangled photons are essential for solving questions in fundamental physics and are at the heart of quantum information science1. Specifically, the realization of high-dimensional states (D-level quantum systems, that is, qudits, with D > 2) and their control are necessary for fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics2, for increasing the sensitivity of quantum imaging schemes3, for improving the robustness and key rate of quantum communication protocols4, for enabling a richer variety of quantum simulations5, and for achieving more efficient and error-tolerant quantum computation6. Integrated photonics has recently become a leading platform for the compact, cost-efficient, and stable generation and processing of non-classical optical states7. However, so far, integrated entangled quantum sources have been limited to qubits (D = 2)8, 9, 10, 11. Here we demonstrate on-chip generation of entangled qudit states, where the photons are created in a coherent superposition of multiple high-purity frequency modes. In particular, we confirm the realization of a quantum system with at least one hundred dimensions, formed by two entangled qudits with D = 10. Furthermore, using state-of-the-art, yet off-the-shelf telecommunications components, we introduce a coherent manipulation platform with which to control frequency-entangled states, capable of performing deterministic high-dimensional gate operations. We validate this platform by measuring Bell inequality violations and performing quantum state tomography. Our work enables the generation and processing of high-dimensional quantum states in a single spatial mode.
LanguageEnglish
Pages622-626
Number of pages5
JournalNature
Volume546
Issue number7660
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jun 2017

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Keywords

  • quantum states
  • quantum simulations
  • entangled photons

Cite this

Kues, M., Reimer, C., Roztocki, P., Cortés, L. R., Sciara, S., Wetzel, B., ... Morandotti, R. (2017). On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control. Nature, 546(7660), 622-626. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22986
Kues, Michael ; Reimer, Christian ; Roztocki, Piotr ; Cortés, Luis Romero ; Sciara, Stefania ; Wetzel, Benjamin ; Zhang, Yanbing ; Cino, Alfonso ; Chu, Sai T. ; Little, Brent E. ; Moss, David J. ; Caspani, Lucia ; Azaña, José ; Morandotti, Roberto. / On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control. In: Nature. 2017 ; Vol. 546, No. 7660. pp. 622-626.
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abstract = "Optical quantum states based on entangled photons are essential for solving questions in fundamental physics and are at the heart of quantum information science1. Specifically, the realization of high-dimensional states (D-level quantum systems, that is, qudits, with D > 2) and their control are necessary for fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics2, for increasing the sensitivity of quantum imaging schemes3, for improving the robustness and key rate of quantum communication protocols4, for enabling a richer variety of quantum simulations5, and for achieving more efficient and error-tolerant quantum computation6. Integrated photonics has recently become a leading platform for the compact, cost-efficient, and stable generation and processing of non-classical optical states7. However, so far, integrated entangled quantum sources have been limited to qubits (D = 2)8, 9, 10, 11. Here we demonstrate on-chip generation of entangled qudit states, where the photons are created in a coherent superposition of multiple high-purity frequency modes. In particular, we confirm the realization of a quantum system with at least one hundred dimensions, formed by two entangled qudits with D = 10. Furthermore, using state-of-the-art, yet off-the-shelf telecommunications components, we introduce a coherent manipulation platform with which to control frequency-entangled states, capable of performing deterministic high-dimensional gate operations. We validate this platform by measuring Bell inequality violations and performing quantum state tomography. Our work enables the generation and processing of high-dimensional quantum states in a single spatial mode.",
keywords = "quantum states, quantum simulations, entangled photons",
author = "Michael Kues and Christian Reimer and Piotr Roztocki and Cort{\'e}s, {Luis Romero} and Stefania Sciara and Benjamin Wetzel and Yanbing Zhang and Alfonso Cino and Chu, {Sai T.} and Little, {Brent E.} and Moss, {David J.} and Lucia Caspani and Jos{\'e} Aza{\~n}a and Roberto Morandotti",
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Kues, M, Reimer, C, Roztocki, P, Cortés, LR, Sciara, S, Wetzel, B, Zhang, Y, Cino, A, Chu, ST, Little, BE, Moss, DJ, Caspani, L, Azaña, J & Morandotti, R 2017, 'On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control' Nature, vol. 546, no. 7660, pp. 622-626. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22986

On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control. / Kues, Michael; Reimer, Christian; Roztocki, Piotr; Cortés, Luis Romero; Sciara, Stefania; Wetzel, Benjamin; Zhang, Yanbing; Cino, Alfonso; Chu, Sai T.; Little, Brent E.; Moss, David J.; Caspani, Lucia; Azaña, José; Morandotti, Roberto.

In: Nature, Vol. 546, No. 7660, 28.06.2017, p. 622-626.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

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T1 - On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control

AU - Kues, Michael

AU - Reimer, Christian

AU - Roztocki, Piotr

AU - Cortés, Luis Romero

AU - Sciara, Stefania

AU - Wetzel, Benjamin

AU - Zhang, Yanbing

AU - Cino, Alfonso

AU - Chu, Sai T.

AU - Little, Brent E.

AU - Moss, David J.

AU - Caspani, Lucia

AU - Azaña, José

AU - Morandotti, Roberto

PY - 2017/6/28

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N2 - Optical quantum states based on entangled photons are essential for solving questions in fundamental physics and are at the heart of quantum information science1. Specifically, the realization of high-dimensional states (D-level quantum systems, that is, qudits, with D > 2) and their control are necessary for fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics2, for increasing the sensitivity of quantum imaging schemes3, for improving the robustness and key rate of quantum communication protocols4, for enabling a richer variety of quantum simulations5, and for achieving more efficient and error-tolerant quantum computation6. Integrated photonics has recently become a leading platform for the compact, cost-efficient, and stable generation and processing of non-classical optical states7. However, so far, integrated entangled quantum sources have been limited to qubits (D = 2)8, 9, 10, 11. Here we demonstrate on-chip generation of entangled qudit states, where the photons are created in a coherent superposition of multiple high-purity frequency modes. In particular, we confirm the realization of a quantum system with at least one hundred dimensions, formed by two entangled qudits with D = 10. Furthermore, using state-of-the-art, yet off-the-shelf telecommunications components, we introduce a coherent manipulation platform with which to control frequency-entangled states, capable of performing deterministic high-dimensional gate operations. We validate this platform by measuring Bell inequality violations and performing quantum state tomography. Our work enables the generation and processing of high-dimensional quantum states in a single spatial mode.

AB - Optical quantum states based on entangled photons are essential for solving questions in fundamental physics and are at the heart of quantum information science1. Specifically, the realization of high-dimensional states (D-level quantum systems, that is, qudits, with D > 2) and their control are necessary for fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics2, for increasing the sensitivity of quantum imaging schemes3, for improving the robustness and key rate of quantum communication protocols4, for enabling a richer variety of quantum simulations5, and for achieving more efficient and error-tolerant quantum computation6. Integrated photonics has recently become a leading platform for the compact, cost-efficient, and stable generation and processing of non-classical optical states7. However, so far, integrated entangled quantum sources have been limited to qubits (D = 2)8, 9, 10, 11. Here we demonstrate on-chip generation of entangled qudit states, where the photons are created in a coherent superposition of multiple high-purity frequency modes. In particular, we confirm the realization of a quantum system with at least one hundred dimensions, formed by two entangled qudits with D = 10. Furthermore, using state-of-the-art, yet off-the-shelf telecommunications components, we introduce a coherent manipulation platform with which to control frequency-entangled states, capable of performing deterministic high-dimensional gate operations. We validate this platform by measuring Bell inequality violations and performing quantum state tomography. Our work enables the generation and processing of high-dimensional quantum states in a single spatial mode.

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KW - quantum simulations

KW - entangled photons

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Kues M, Reimer C, Roztocki P, Cortés LR, Sciara S, Wetzel B et al. On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control. Nature. 2017 Jun 28;546(7660):622-626. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22986