Ocean acidification reduces the crystallographic control in juvenile mussel shells

Susan C. Fitzer, Maggie Cusack, Vernon R. Phoenix, Nicholas A. Kamenos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Global climate change threatens the oceans as anthropogenic carbon dioxide causes ocean acidification and reduced carbonate saturation. Future projections indicate under saturation of aragonite, and potentially calcite, in the oceans by 2100. Calcifying organisms are those most at risk from such ocean acidification, as carbonate is vital in the biomineralisation of their calcium carbonate protective shells. This study highlights the importance of multi-generational studies to investigate how marine organisms can potentially adapt to future projected global climate change. Mytilus edulis is an economically important marine calcifier vulnerable to decreasing carbonate saturation as their shells comprise two calcium carbonate polymorphs: aragonite and calcite. M. edulis specimens were cultured under current and projected pCO2 (380, 550, 750 and 1000μatm), following 6months of experimental culture, adults produced second generation juvenile mussels. Juvenile mussel shells were examined for structural and crystallographic orientation of aragonite and calcite. At 1000μatm pCO2, juvenile mussels spawned and grown under this high pCO2 do not produce aragonite which is more vulnerable to carbonate under-saturation than calcite. Calcite and aragonite were produced at 380, 550 and 750μatm pCO2. Electron back scatter diffraction analyses reveal less constraint in crystallographic orientation with increased pCO2. Shell formation is maintained, although the nacre crystals appear corroded and crystals are not so closely layered together. The differences in ultrastructure and crystallography in shells formed by juveniles spawned from adults in high pCO2 conditions may prove instrumental in their ability to survive ocean acidification.

LanguageEnglish
Pages39-45
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Structural Biology
Volume188
Issue number1
Early online date30 Aug 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Calcium Carbonate
Bivalvia
Oceans and Seas
Carbonates
Mytilus edulis
Climate Change
Nacre
Aquatic Organisms
Crystallography
Carbon Dioxide
Electrons

Keywords

  • biomineralisation
  • CO2
  • multiple stressors
  • mussels
  • ocean acidification
  • temperature

Cite this

Fitzer, Susan C. ; Cusack, Maggie ; Phoenix, Vernon R. ; Kamenos, Nicholas A. / Ocean acidification reduces the crystallographic control in juvenile mussel shells. In: Journal of Structural Biology. 2014 ; Vol. 188, No. 1. pp. 39-45.
@article{d7a0704a492047ba97d09da2dfce2bfb,
title = "Ocean acidification reduces the crystallographic control in juvenile mussel shells",
abstract = "Global climate change threatens the oceans as anthropogenic carbon dioxide causes ocean acidification and reduced carbonate saturation. Future projections indicate under saturation of aragonite, and potentially calcite, in the oceans by 2100. Calcifying organisms are those most at risk from such ocean acidification, as carbonate is vital in the biomineralisation of their calcium carbonate protective shells. This study highlights the importance of multi-generational studies to investigate how marine organisms can potentially adapt to future projected global climate change. Mytilus edulis is an economically important marine calcifier vulnerable to decreasing carbonate saturation as their shells comprise two calcium carbonate polymorphs: aragonite and calcite. M. edulis specimens were cultured under current and projected pCO2 (380, 550, 750 and 1000μatm), following 6months of experimental culture, adults produced second generation juvenile mussels. Juvenile mussel shells were examined for structural and crystallographic orientation of aragonite and calcite. At 1000μatm pCO2, juvenile mussels spawned and grown under this high pCO2 do not produce aragonite which is more vulnerable to carbonate under-saturation than calcite. Calcite and aragonite were produced at 380, 550 and 750μatm pCO2. Electron back scatter diffraction analyses reveal less constraint in crystallographic orientation with increased pCO2. Shell formation is maintained, although the nacre crystals appear corroded and crystals are not so closely layered together. The differences in ultrastructure and crystallography in shells formed by juveniles spawned from adults in high pCO2 conditions may prove instrumental in their ability to survive ocean acidification.",
keywords = "biomineralisation, CO2, multiple stressors, mussels, ocean acidification, temperature",
author = "Fitzer, {Susan C.} and Maggie Cusack and Phoenix, {Vernon R.} and Kamenos, {Nicholas A.}",
year = "2014",
month = "10",
day = "31",
doi = "10.1016/j.jsb.2014.08.007",
language = "English",
volume = "188",
pages = "39--45",
journal = "Journal of Structural Biology",
issn = "1047-8477",
number = "1",

}

Ocean acidification reduces the crystallographic control in juvenile mussel shells. / Fitzer, Susan C.; Cusack, Maggie; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Kamenos, Nicholas A.

In: Journal of Structural Biology, Vol. 188, No. 1, 31.10.2014, p. 39-45.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ocean acidification reduces the crystallographic control in juvenile mussel shells

AU - Fitzer, Susan C.

AU - Cusack, Maggie

AU - Phoenix, Vernon R.

AU - Kamenos, Nicholas A.

PY - 2014/10/31

Y1 - 2014/10/31

N2 - Global climate change threatens the oceans as anthropogenic carbon dioxide causes ocean acidification and reduced carbonate saturation. Future projections indicate under saturation of aragonite, and potentially calcite, in the oceans by 2100. Calcifying organisms are those most at risk from such ocean acidification, as carbonate is vital in the biomineralisation of their calcium carbonate protective shells. This study highlights the importance of multi-generational studies to investigate how marine organisms can potentially adapt to future projected global climate change. Mytilus edulis is an economically important marine calcifier vulnerable to decreasing carbonate saturation as their shells comprise two calcium carbonate polymorphs: aragonite and calcite. M. edulis specimens were cultured under current and projected pCO2 (380, 550, 750 and 1000μatm), following 6months of experimental culture, adults produced second generation juvenile mussels. Juvenile mussel shells were examined for structural and crystallographic orientation of aragonite and calcite. At 1000μatm pCO2, juvenile mussels spawned and grown under this high pCO2 do not produce aragonite which is more vulnerable to carbonate under-saturation than calcite. Calcite and aragonite were produced at 380, 550 and 750μatm pCO2. Electron back scatter diffraction analyses reveal less constraint in crystallographic orientation with increased pCO2. Shell formation is maintained, although the nacre crystals appear corroded and crystals are not so closely layered together. The differences in ultrastructure and crystallography in shells formed by juveniles spawned from adults in high pCO2 conditions may prove instrumental in their ability to survive ocean acidification.

AB - Global climate change threatens the oceans as anthropogenic carbon dioxide causes ocean acidification and reduced carbonate saturation. Future projections indicate under saturation of aragonite, and potentially calcite, in the oceans by 2100. Calcifying organisms are those most at risk from such ocean acidification, as carbonate is vital in the biomineralisation of their calcium carbonate protective shells. This study highlights the importance of multi-generational studies to investigate how marine organisms can potentially adapt to future projected global climate change. Mytilus edulis is an economically important marine calcifier vulnerable to decreasing carbonate saturation as their shells comprise two calcium carbonate polymorphs: aragonite and calcite. M. edulis specimens were cultured under current and projected pCO2 (380, 550, 750 and 1000μatm), following 6months of experimental culture, adults produced second generation juvenile mussels. Juvenile mussel shells were examined for structural and crystallographic orientation of aragonite and calcite. At 1000μatm pCO2, juvenile mussels spawned and grown under this high pCO2 do not produce aragonite which is more vulnerable to carbonate under-saturation than calcite. Calcite and aragonite were produced at 380, 550 and 750μatm pCO2. Electron back scatter diffraction analyses reveal less constraint in crystallographic orientation with increased pCO2. Shell formation is maintained, although the nacre crystals appear corroded and crystals are not so closely layered together. The differences in ultrastructure and crystallography in shells formed by juveniles spawned from adults in high pCO2 conditions may prove instrumental in their ability to survive ocean acidification.

KW - biomineralisation

KW - CO2

KW - multiple stressors

KW - mussels

KW - ocean acidification

KW - temperature

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84907624081&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10478477

U2 - 10.1016/j.jsb.2014.08.007

DO - 10.1016/j.jsb.2014.08.007

M3 - Article

VL - 188

SP - 39

EP - 45

JO - Journal of Structural Biology

T2 - Journal of Structural Biology

JF - Journal of Structural Biology

SN - 1047-8477

IS - 1

ER -