A metallurgical post-mortem investigation has been carried out on Mark 1 Hypervapotron elements from the Joint European Tokamak (JET), with the aim of aiding engineers in improving the future design of such high heat flux (HHF) component. Optical and electron microscopy and X-ray techniques have been utilised. Work has predominately focused on the electron beam (EB) welded and vacuum brazed joints of the Hypervapotron. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) has been used to assess the chemical composition while micro and nano indentation testing has been used to study the hardness profiles of these joints. Poor quality control of the vacuum brazing process resulted in nickel based filler material, contaminating internal surfaces. Variable penetration and entrapped voids in the EB welds suggested weld spiking occurred during the joining process. Details of these findings and a critical assessment of the potential implications are given where appropriate.
- EB welding
- vacuum brazing