Observation of correlated particle-hole pairs and string order in low-dimensional mott insulators

M. Endres, M. Cheneau, T. Fukuhara, C. Weitenberg, Peter Schauß, C. Gross, L. Mazza, M.C. Bañuls, L. Pollet, I. Bloch, Stefan Kuhr

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197 Citations (Scopus)


Quantum phases of matter are characterized by the underlying correlations of the many-body system. Although this is typically captured by a local order parameter, it has been shown that a broad class of many-body systems possesses a hidden nonlocal order. In the case of bosonic Mott insulators, the ground state properties are governed by quantum fluctuations in the form of correlated particle-hole pairs that lead to the emergence of a nonlocal string order in one dimension. By using high-resolution imaging of low-dimensional quantum gases in an optical lattice, we directly detect these pairs with single-site and single-particle sensitivity and observe string order in the one-dimensional case.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)200-203
Number of pages4
Issue number6053
Publication statusPublished - 14 Oct 2011


  • quantum phases
  • particle-hole pairs
  • string order

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