It is critical to estimate the manoeuvring behaviours of ships in waves since it is closely associated with navigation safety at sea. This study aims to predict the wavelength effects on the ship manoeuvring behaviours using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based technique which enables resolving the complex interactions between hull, rudder, and propeller in waves. An Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) model of the well-known benchmarking KRISO Container Ship (KCS) was developed using the dynamic overset grid technique to simulate the ship motions and rudder deflection. To represent the effects of the propeller, the body force method using an infinite-blade actuator disk was used. The manoeuvring analyses were carried out in bow waves of wavelength-to-ship-length ratios varying between 0.7 and 2.0 for constant wave height. Two representative free-running manoeuvres were conducted, namely, course keeping control, and standard turning circle manoeuvres. The analyses revealed that the wavelength has a significant influence on the manoeuvring performance, especially for the approach speeds, ship motions, and manoeuvring indices. The key findings of this research will increase the understanding of ship manoeuvrability in waves and therefore help to enhance navigation safety at sea.
- ship manoeuvrability
- CFD (computational fluid dynamics)
- course-keeping control