Novel metrics to quantify the impacts of frequency support provision methods by wind power

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This paper introduces two novel metrics to judge the capability and influence of wind power to provide virtual inertia response (i.e. frequency support). The first metric considers the generation unit (i.e. wind turbine generator (WTG)/wind farm (WF) vs. synchronous generator). This metric is applied to compare between three different methods of provision of frequency support. The second metric assess the improvement or hindering in frequency response at the point of common coupling (PCC) between a WF and a synchronous area. This metric is critical especially to WFs that are connected via High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) or Low-frequency AC links. Both metrics are universal so that they could be applied to any support method, and any power system. The first metric is applied to assess the virtual inertia response of an offshore WF, which is considered as a power plant along with the HVDC transmission link. Results assure the positive impact of the provision of frequency support by wind power. This impact is quantified could be used to tune frequency support controllers, and optimize system planning. It is verified that no obstacles are implied by the HVDC link to integrating frequency support methods, as the WF dominates the support process
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe 2016
Place of PublicationPiscataway
ISBN (Print)9781509033584
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 27 Jun 2016
EventIEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, Europe - Cankarjev dom – Congress Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Duration: 9 Oct 201612 Oct 2016


ConferenceIEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, Europe
Abbreviated titleIEEE ISGT 2016
Internet address


  • wind power
  • power systems
  • ancillary services
  • virtual inertia
  • HVDC
  • energy storage


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