Novel manufacturing of multi-material component by hybrid friction stir channeling

Heikki Karvinen, Kush P. Mehta, Pedro Vilaça

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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The hybrid friction stir channeling (HC) is a recent manufacturing technique, reinforcing the broad range of solutions provided by the technological domain of solid-state friction stir-based welding and processing. HC enables the simultaneous welding of multiple components and the sub-surface channeling within the desired region at the stir zone. HC provides new demanding solutions having free path sub-surface channeling and welding for multi-material components with optimized physical and chemical performances. In the present investigation, a multi-material system consisting of 8 mm thick Al-Mg alloy (AA5083) and 3 mm thick oxygen free copper (Cu-OF) was processed by HC. A specially designed tool consists of the probe’s body features that steer materials extraction and the probe’s tip features that generate materials mixing was applied to produce sub-surface channel at AA5083, along with its simultaneous welding to Cu-OF material. Visual examination of the AA5083′s surface processed by the shoulder, cross-sectional dimensioning, optical 3D scanning of the internal surfaces of the channel, optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and micro-hardness measurements were applied to investigate the results. The successful application of HC to manufacture multi-material Al-Cu component is demonstrated. A large sub-surface quasi rectangular channel with 9.6 mm in width per 3.3 mm in height was produced in the AA5083 rib along with defect free welding to thin Cu-OF plate at just below the channel region multi-material. The resulted sub-surface channel was consisted of unique wall surface features, with non-uniform and non-oriented surface roughness, suitable to activate turbulent fluid flow. The microhardness field depicts a higher-strength domain of the stirred material, at the ceiling of the sub-surface channel in comparison with the base materials. The welding zone comprises a metal matrix composite structure with Al-Cu inter-mixing and a mechanical hooking from Cu into the Al matrix. The metallurgical features of the weld stirred zone were analyzed, with an interpretation of Al-Cu phases, and solid solution of Al and Cu in each other. In this zone, Cu-rich lamellae regions are dispersed within the Al-matrix, presenting thin layers of discontinuous intermetallic compounds. The effective potential of manufacturing multi-material component for applicability in thermal management system is demonstrated.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)271-284
Number of pages14
JournalCIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology
Early online date26 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2023


  • hybrid
  • channeling
  • weld
  • friction stir processing
  • aluminium alloy
  • copper
  • microstructure


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