Novel complexing additives to reduce the immiscible phase formed in the hybrid ZnBr2 flow battery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The zinc-bromine redox flow battery (RFB) is one of a very few commercially viable RFB energy storage system capable of integration with intermittent renewable energy sources to deliver improved energy management. However, due to the volatility of the electrogenerated bromine and potential for its crossover from positive to negative electrolytes, this system requires the use of quaternary ammonium complexes (N-methyl-N-ethylpyrrolidinium, (MEP)) to capture this bromine. This produces an immiscible phase with the Br2 which requires a complex network of pipes, pumps and automated controls to ensure access to the electroactive material during discharge. In this work, the use of novel quaternary ammonium complexes to capture the electrogenerated bromine but to keep it in the aqueous phase is examined. Three compounds, 1-(carboxymethyl) pyridine-1-ium, 1-(2-carboxymethyl)-1-methylmorpholin-1-ium and 1-(2-carboxymethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidin-1-ium, were found to successfully reduce the volume of the immiscible phase formed on complexing with the polybromide (Brx-) whilst displaying similar enthalpy of vaporisation values as that of MEP. Electrochemical analysis also revealed that these compounds did not impact on the electrode kinetics of the Br-/Brx- reaction indicating that the resulting surface film formed with these compounds behaved as a chemically modified electrode, in contrast to the surface film formed with MEP.

Fingerprint

Bromine
Ammonium Compounds
Electrodes
Energy management
Complex networks
Vaporization
Pyridine
Energy storage
Electrolytes
Zinc
Enthalpy
Pipe
Pumps
Kinetics
Flow batteries

Keywords

  • zinc bromine
  • complexing agents
  • redox flow battery

Cite this

@article{20ed9cd6752b4a07be6474821cd02c7e,
title = "Novel complexing additives to reduce the immiscible phase formed in the hybrid ZnBr2 flow battery",
abstract = "The zinc-bromine redox flow battery (RFB) is one of a very few commercially viable RFB energy storage system capable of integration with intermittent renewable energy sources to deliver improved energy management. However, due to the volatility of the electrogenerated bromine and potential for its crossover from positive to negative electrolytes, this system requires the use of quaternary ammonium complexes (N-methyl-N-ethylpyrrolidinium, (MEP)) to capture this bromine. This produces an immiscible phase with the Br2 which requires a complex network of pipes, pumps and automated controls to ensure access to the electroactive material during discharge. In this work, the use of novel quaternary ammonium complexes to capture the electrogenerated bromine but to keep it in the aqueous phase is examined. Three compounds, 1-(carboxymethyl) pyridine-1-ium, 1-(2-carboxymethyl)-1-methylmorpholin-1-ium and 1-(2-carboxymethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidin-1-ium, were found to successfully reduce the volume of the immiscible phase formed on complexing with the polybromide (Brx-) whilst displaying similar enthalpy of vaporisation values as that of MEP. Electrochemical analysis also revealed that these compounds did not impact on the electrode kinetics of the Br-/Brx- reaction indicating that the resulting surface film formed with these compounds behaved as a chemically modified electrode, in contrast to the surface film formed with MEP.",
keywords = "zinc bromine, complexing agents, redox flow battery",
author = "Declan Bryans and Brian McMillan and Mark Spicer and Alastair Wark and Leonard Berlouis",
year = "2017",
month = "11",
day = "2",
doi = "10.1149/2.1651713jes",
language = "English",
volume = "164",
journal = "Journal of the Electrochemical Society",
issn = "0013-4651",
number = "13",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Novel complexing additives to reduce the immiscible phase formed in the hybrid ZnBr2 flow battery

AU - Bryans, Declan

AU - McMillan, Brian

AU - Spicer, Mark

AU - Wark, Alastair

AU - Berlouis, Leonard

PY - 2017/11/2

Y1 - 2017/11/2

N2 - The zinc-bromine redox flow battery (RFB) is one of a very few commercially viable RFB energy storage system capable of integration with intermittent renewable energy sources to deliver improved energy management. However, due to the volatility of the electrogenerated bromine and potential for its crossover from positive to negative electrolytes, this system requires the use of quaternary ammonium complexes (N-methyl-N-ethylpyrrolidinium, (MEP)) to capture this bromine. This produces an immiscible phase with the Br2 which requires a complex network of pipes, pumps and automated controls to ensure access to the electroactive material during discharge. In this work, the use of novel quaternary ammonium complexes to capture the electrogenerated bromine but to keep it in the aqueous phase is examined. Three compounds, 1-(carboxymethyl) pyridine-1-ium, 1-(2-carboxymethyl)-1-methylmorpholin-1-ium and 1-(2-carboxymethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidin-1-ium, were found to successfully reduce the volume of the immiscible phase formed on complexing with the polybromide (Brx-) whilst displaying similar enthalpy of vaporisation values as that of MEP. Electrochemical analysis also revealed that these compounds did not impact on the electrode kinetics of the Br-/Brx- reaction indicating that the resulting surface film formed with these compounds behaved as a chemically modified electrode, in contrast to the surface film formed with MEP.

AB - The zinc-bromine redox flow battery (RFB) is one of a very few commercially viable RFB energy storage system capable of integration with intermittent renewable energy sources to deliver improved energy management. However, due to the volatility of the electrogenerated bromine and potential for its crossover from positive to negative electrolytes, this system requires the use of quaternary ammonium complexes (N-methyl-N-ethylpyrrolidinium, (MEP)) to capture this bromine. This produces an immiscible phase with the Br2 which requires a complex network of pipes, pumps and automated controls to ensure access to the electroactive material during discharge. In this work, the use of novel quaternary ammonium complexes to capture the electrogenerated bromine but to keep it in the aqueous phase is examined. Three compounds, 1-(carboxymethyl) pyridine-1-ium, 1-(2-carboxymethyl)-1-methylmorpholin-1-ium and 1-(2-carboxymethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidin-1-ium, were found to successfully reduce the volume of the immiscible phase formed on complexing with the polybromide (Brx-) whilst displaying similar enthalpy of vaporisation values as that of MEP. Electrochemical analysis also revealed that these compounds did not impact on the electrode kinetics of the Br-/Brx- reaction indicating that the resulting surface film formed with these compounds behaved as a chemically modified electrode, in contrast to the surface film formed with MEP.

KW - zinc bromine

KW - complexing agents

KW - redox flow battery

UR - http://jes.ecsdl.org/

U2 - 10.1149/2.1651713jes

DO - 10.1149/2.1651713jes

M3 - Article

VL - 164

JO - Journal of the Electrochemical Society

T2 - Journal of the Electrochemical Society

JF - Journal of the Electrochemical Society

SN - 0013-4651

IS - 13

ER -