Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR(2)) is a G-protein coupled receptor associated with many pathophysiological functions. To date, the development of PAR(2) antagonists has been limited. Here, we identify a number of novel peptide-mimetic PAR(2) antagonists and demonstrate inhibitory effects on PAR(2)-mediated intracellular signalling pathways and vascular responses. The peptide-mimetic compound library based on the structures of PAR(2) agonist peptides were screened for inhibition of PAR(2)-induced calcium mobilisation in human keratinocytes. Representative compounds were further evaluated by radioligand binding and inhibition of NF kappa B transcriptional activity and IL-8 production. The vascular effects of the antagonists were assessed using in vitro and in vivo models. Two compounds, K-12940 and K-14585, significantly reduced SLIGKV-induced Ca2+ mobilisation in primary human keratinocytes. Both K-12940 and K-14585 exhibited competitive inhibition for the binding of a high-affinity radiolabelled PAR(2)-ligand, [H-3]-2-furoyl-LIGRL-NH2, to human PAR(2) with K-i values of 1.94 and 0.627 mu M respectively. NF kappa B reporter activity and IL-8 production were also significantly reduced. Furthermore, relaxation of rat-isolated aorta induced by SLIGRL-NH2 was inhibited competitively by K-14585. K-14585 also significantly lowered plasma extravasation in the dorsal skin of guinea pigs and reduced salivation in mice. K-12940 and K-14585 antagonized PAR(2) competitively, resulting in inhibition of PAR(2)-mediated signalling and physiological responses both in vitro and in vivo. These peptide-mimetic PAR(2) antagonists could be useful in evaluating PAR(2)-mediated biological events and might lead to a new generation of therapeutically useful antagonists.
- Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2
- Ca2+ mobilization
- thrombin receptor
- human keratinocytes