Nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation of potassium halides: effects of wavelength and temperature

Martin R. Ward, Andrew J. Alexander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation (NPLIN) of KCl and KBr has been studied using nanosecond laser pulses with wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm. The ratio of the number of samples nucleated to the number irradiated with the laser (f) follows a nonlinear dependence on peak power density that approaches f = 1 at higher incident powers, which we fit with a Poisson function. The threshold power required to nucleate samples is lower at 532 than at 1064 nm, and we observe that a higher fraction of samples nucleate when exposed to 532 nm pulses at a given laser power. In comparison to KCl, we see higher fractions of KBr samples nucleate and lower threshold values at both wavelengths. Samples of KCl of equal supersaturation at two different temperatures (23 and 33 °C) shot with 1064 nm pulses show that the 33 °C samples are significantly more labile to nucleation. The ratio of samples nucleated at 33 °C compared to those at 23 °C was 2.11 ± 0.47. A classical nucleation model based on activation of subcritical clusters in solution accounts remarkably well for the experimental data and provides phenomenological values of the crystal–solution interfacial tension (γ) at 23 °C for KCl and KBr of 5.283 and 4.817 mJ m–2. At 33 °C, the model yields a best-fit value of γ = 5.429 mJ m–2 for KCl.
LanguageEnglish
Pages4554-4561
Number of pages8
JournalCrystal Growth and Design
Volume12
Issue number9
Early online date18 Jul 2012
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Sep 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

halides
Potassium
potassium
Nucleation
nucleation
Wavelength
Lasers
Laser pulses
wavelengths
lasers
Supersaturation
Temperature
temperature
Surface tension
Chemical activation
pulses
Crystals
thresholds
supersaturation
potassium bromide

Keywords

  • laser-induced nucleation
  • laser power
  • nanosecond laser pulse
  • nucleation
  • nonlinear dependence

Cite this

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title = "Nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation of potassium halides: effects of wavelength and temperature",
abstract = "Nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation (NPLIN) of KCl and KBr has been studied using nanosecond laser pulses with wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm. The ratio of the number of samples nucleated to the number irradiated with the laser (f) follows a nonlinear dependence on peak power density that approaches f = 1 at higher incident powers, which we fit with a Poisson function. The threshold power required to nucleate samples is lower at 532 than at 1064 nm, and we observe that a higher fraction of samples nucleate when exposed to 532 nm pulses at a given laser power. In comparison to KCl, we see higher fractions of KBr samples nucleate and lower threshold values at both wavelengths. Samples of KCl of equal supersaturation at two different temperatures (23 and 33 °C) shot with 1064 nm pulses show that the 33 °C samples are significantly more labile to nucleation. The ratio of samples nucleated at 33 °C compared to those at 23 °C was 2.11 ± 0.47. A classical nucleation model based on activation of subcritical clusters in solution accounts remarkably well for the experimental data and provides phenomenological values of the crystal–solution interfacial tension (γ) at 23 °C for KCl and KBr of 5.283 and 4.817 mJ m–2. At 33 °C, the model yields a best-fit value of γ = 5.429 mJ m–2 for KCl.",
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Nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation of potassium halides : effects of wavelength and temperature. / Ward, Martin R.; Alexander, Andrew J.

In: Crystal Growth and Design, Vol. 12, No. 9, 05.09.2012, p. 4554-4561.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

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AU - Alexander, Andrew J.

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N2 - Nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation (NPLIN) of KCl and KBr has been studied using nanosecond laser pulses with wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm. The ratio of the number of samples nucleated to the number irradiated with the laser (f) follows a nonlinear dependence on peak power density that approaches f = 1 at higher incident powers, which we fit with a Poisson function. The threshold power required to nucleate samples is lower at 532 than at 1064 nm, and we observe that a higher fraction of samples nucleate when exposed to 532 nm pulses at a given laser power. In comparison to KCl, we see higher fractions of KBr samples nucleate and lower threshold values at both wavelengths. Samples of KCl of equal supersaturation at two different temperatures (23 and 33 °C) shot with 1064 nm pulses show that the 33 °C samples are significantly more labile to nucleation. The ratio of samples nucleated at 33 °C compared to those at 23 °C was 2.11 ± 0.47. A classical nucleation model based on activation of subcritical clusters in solution accounts remarkably well for the experimental data and provides phenomenological values of the crystal–solution interfacial tension (γ) at 23 °C for KCl and KBr of 5.283 and 4.817 mJ m–2. At 33 °C, the model yields a best-fit value of γ = 5.429 mJ m–2 for KCl.

AB - Nonphotochemical laser-induced nucleation (NPLIN) of KCl and KBr has been studied using nanosecond laser pulses with wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm. The ratio of the number of samples nucleated to the number irradiated with the laser (f) follows a nonlinear dependence on peak power density that approaches f = 1 at higher incident powers, which we fit with a Poisson function. The threshold power required to nucleate samples is lower at 532 than at 1064 nm, and we observe that a higher fraction of samples nucleate when exposed to 532 nm pulses at a given laser power. In comparison to KCl, we see higher fractions of KBr samples nucleate and lower threshold values at both wavelengths. Samples of KCl of equal supersaturation at two different temperatures (23 and 33 °C) shot with 1064 nm pulses show that the 33 °C samples are significantly more labile to nucleation. The ratio of samples nucleated at 33 °C compared to those at 23 °C was 2.11 ± 0.47. A classical nucleation model based on activation of subcritical clusters in solution accounts remarkably well for the experimental data and provides phenomenological values of the crystal–solution interfacial tension (γ) at 23 °C for KCl and KBr of 5.283 and 4.817 mJ m–2. At 33 °C, the model yields a best-fit value of γ = 5.429 mJ m–2 for KCl.

KW - laser-induced nucleation

KW - laser power

KW - nanosecond laser pulse

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KW - nonlinear dependence

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