The propagation of acoustic nonlinear excitations in an electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma composed of warm electrons and positrons, as well as hot ions, has been investigated by adopting a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry. The electrons and positrons are modeled by hydrodynamic fluid equations, while the ions are assumed to follow a temperature-parametrized Boltzmann distribution (the fixed ion model is recovered in the appropriate limit). This situation applies in the accretion disk near a black hole in active galactic nuclei, where the ion temperature may be as high as 3 to 300 times that of the electrons. Using a reductive perturbation technique, a cylindrical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation is derived and its exact soliton solutions are presented. Furthermore, real situations in which the strength of the nonlinearity may be weak are considered, so that higher-order nonlinearity plays an important role. Accordingly, an extended cylindrical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation is derived, which admits both soliton and double-layer solutions. The characteristics of the nonlinear excitations obtained are investigated in detail.
- nonlinear excitations
- electron-positron-ion plasmas
- galactic nuclei