The last few decades have seen renewable energy source (RES) integration growing at a rapid pace and this trend is likely to continue. The displacement of conventional synchronous plant, particularly at higher RES shares, is resulting in a ‘lighter’ system with low system inertia and reduced governor droop stiffness, leading to increased vulnerability to fast frequency stability. This paper presents a review of literature from the research and industry communities on possible sources of non-synchronous fast frequency reserve, considered as a potential solution to address diminishing synchronous reserve in RES integrated systems. The wide range of potential sources includes wind turbines, solar photovoltaic plant, energy storage, high voltage direct current (HVDC) systems, and demand response. The challenges and limitations associated with each approach are highlighted, and alternative strategies to maintain a minimum volume of security constrained fast frequency reserve are discussed based on the recent industry trends.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems|
|Early online date||2 Nov 2018|
|Publication status||Published - 31 Mar 2019|
- fast frequency response
- emulated inertia
- ancillary services