Non-synchronous fast frequency reserves in renewable energy integrated power systems: a critical review

Hazem Karbouj, Zakir Hussain Rather, Damian Flynn, Hassan W. Qazi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)


The last few decades have seen renewable energy source (RES) integration growing at a rapid pace and this trend is likely to continue. The displacement of conventional synchronous plant, particularly at higher RES shares, is resulting in a ‘lighter’ system with low system inertia and reduced governor droop stiffness, leading to increased vulnerability to fast frequency stability. This paper presents a review of literature from the research and industry communities on possible sources of non-synchronous fast frequency reserve, considered as a potential solution to address diminishing synchronous reserve in RES integrated systems. The wide range of potential sources includes wind turbines, solar photovoltaic plant, energy storage, high voltage direct current (HVDC) systems, and demand response. The challenges and limitations associated with each approach are highlighted, and alternative strategies to maintain a minimum volume of security constrained fast frequency reserve are discussed based on the recent industry trends.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)488-501
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems
Early online date2 Nov 2018
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2019


  • fast frequency response
  • emulated inertia
  • ancillary services

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