The non-canonical inflammasome sensor caspase-11 and gasdermin D (GSDMD) drive inflammation and pyroptosis, a type of immunogenic cell death that favors cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. Here we show that caspase-11 and GSDMD are required for CD8+ and Th1 responses induced by nanoparticulate vaccine adjuvants. We demonstrate that nanoparticle-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are size dependent and essential for CMI, and we identify 50- to 60-nm nanoparticles as optimal inducers of ROS, GSDMD activation, and Th1 and CD8+ responses. We reveal a division of labor for IL-1 and IL-18, where IL-1 supports Th1 and IL-18 promotes CD8+ responses. Exploiting size as a key attribute, we demonstrate that biodegradable poly-lactic co-glycolic acid nanoparticles are potent CMI-inducing adjuvants. Our work implicates ROS and the non-canonical inflammasome in the mode of action of polymeric nanoparticulate adjuvants and establishes adjuvant size as a key design principle for vaccines against cancer and intracellular pathogens.
|Number of pages||22|
|Journal||Cell Reports Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - 17 Jan 2023|
- cell-mediated immunity
- non-canonical inflammasome
- polymeric nanoparticles
- T cells