Chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. isolated from Limonium tubiflorum growing in Egypt afforded four new compounds of polyketide origin, including two macrolides, penilactone (1) and 10,11-epoxycurvularin (2), a dianthrone, neobulgarone G (7), and a sulfinylcoumarin, sulfimarin (14), along with twelve known metabolites (3-6, 8-13, 15 and 16). The structures of all compounds were assigned by comprehensive spectral analysis (1D and 2D NMR) and mass spectrometry. Compounds 3, 4, 13 and 16 showed pronounced antitrypanosomal activity with mean MIC values ranging from 4.96 to 9.75μM. Moreover, when tested against a panel of three human tumor cell lines compounds 3, 4, 6 and 12 showed selective growth inhibition against Jurkat and U937 cell lines with IC(50) values ranging from 1.8 to 13.3μM. The latter compounds also inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB activity in K562 cells with IC(50) values ranging from 1.6 to 10.1μM, respectively.
- magnetic resonance spectroscopy
- NF-kappa B
- trypanocidal agents
- electrospray ionization