Increasing numbers of very small generators are being connected to electricity distribution systems around the world. Examples include photovoltaics (PV) and gas-fired domestic-scale combined heat and power (micro-CHP) systems, with electrical outputs in the region of 1 to 2 kW. These generators are normally installed within consumers' premises and connected to the domestic electricity supply network (230 V single-phase in Europe, 120 V in North America). There is a growing need to understand and quantify the technical impact that high penetrations of such generators may have on the operation of distribution systems. This paper presents an approach to analyzing this impact together with results indicating that considerable penetrations of micro-generation can be accommodated in a typical distribution system.
- distributed generation
- distribution networks