Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes

A.Z Khokhar, K. Parsons, G. Hubbard, F. Rahman, D.S. MacIntyre, C. Xiong, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, N.P. Johnson, R.M. De La Rue, I.M. Watson, E. Gu, M.D. Dawson, S.J. Abbott, M.D.B Charlton, M. Tillin

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20 Citations (Scopus)


We describe a comparison of nanofabrication technologies for the fabrication of 2D photonic crystal structures on GaN/InGaN blue LEDs. Such devices exhibit enhanced brightness and the possibility of controlling the angular emission profile of emitted light. This paper describes three nano lithography techniques for patterning photonic crystal structures on the emitting faces of LEDs: direct-write electron beam lithography, hard stamp nanoimprint lithography and soft-stamp nanoimprint lithography with disposable embossing masters. In each case we describe variations on the technique as well as its advantages and disadvantages. Complete process details have been given for all three techniques. In addition, we show how high performance GaN dry etch techniques, coupled with optical process monitoring can transfer resist patterns into underlying GaN material with high fidelity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2200-2207
Number of pages7
JournalMicroelectronic Engineering
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2010


  • light-emitting diodes
  • photonic crystals
  • nanolithography
  • GaN dry-etching

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    Khokhar, A. Z., Parsons, K., Hubbard, G., Rahman, F., MacIntyre, D. S., Xiong, C., Massoubre, D., Gong, Z., Johnson, N. P., De La Rue, R. M., Watson, I. M., Gu, E., Dawson, M. D., Abbott, S. J., Charlton, M. D. B., & Tillin, M. (2010). Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes. Microelectronic Engineering, 87(11), 2200-2207.