Nanodiamonds enable adaptive-optics enhanced, super-resolution, two-photon excitation microscopy

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Particles of diamond in the 5–100 nm size range, known as nanodiamond (ND), have shown promise as robust fluorophores for optical imaging. We demonstrate here that, due to their photostability, they are not only suitable for two-photon imaging, but also allow significant resolution enhancement when combined with computational super-resolution techniques. We observe a resolution of 42.5 nm when processing two-photon images with the Super-Resolution Radial Fluctuations algorithm. We show manipulation of the point-spread function of the microscope using adaptive optics. This demonstrates how the photostability of ND can also be of use when characterizing adaptive optics technologies or testing the resilience of super-resolution or aberration correction algorithms.
Original languageEnglish
Article number190589
Number of pages13
JournalRoyal Society Open Science
Issue number7
Early online date31 Jul 2019
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2019


  • nanodiamond
  • super-resolution
  • multi-photon excitation
  • adaptive optics


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