Multiple policies to enhance prescribing efficiency for established medicines in Europe with a particular focus on demand-side measures: findings and future implications

Brian Godman, Bjorn Wettermark, Menno van Woerkom, Jessica Fraeyman, Samantha Alvarez-Madrazo, Christian Berg, Iain Bishop, Anna Bucsics, Stephen Campbell, Alexander E. Finlayson, Jurij Fürst, Kristina Garuoliene, Harald Herholz, Marija Kalaba, Ott Laius, Jutta Piessnegger, Catherine Sermet, Ulrich Schwabe, Vera V. Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vanda Markovic-PekovicLuka Voncina, Kamila Malinowska, Corrine Zara, Lars L. Gustafsson

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Abstract

Introduction: The appreciable growth in pharmaceutical expenditure has resulted in multiple initiatives across Europe to lower generic prices and enhance their utilization. However, considerable variation in their use and prices. Objective: Assess the influence of multiple supply and demand-side initiatives across Europe for established medicines to enhance prescribing efficiency before a decision to prescribe a particular medicine. Subsequently utilize the findings to suggest potential future initiatives that countries could consider. Method: An analysis of different methodologies involving cross national and single country retrospective observational studies on reimbursed use and expenditure of PPIs, statins, and renin-angiotensin inhibitor drugs among European countries. Results: Nature and intensity of the various initiatives appreciably influenced prescribing behavior and expenditure, e.g., multiple measures resulted in reimbursed expenditure for PPIs in Scotland in 2010 56% below 2001 levels despite a 3-fold increase in utilization and in the Netherlands, PPI expenditure fell by 58% in 2010 vs. 2000 despite a 3-fold increase in utilization. A similar picture was seen with prescribing restrictions, i.e., (i) more aggressive follow-up of prescribing restrictions for patented statins and ARBs resulted in a greater reduction in the utilization of patented statins in Austria vs. Norway and lower utilization of patented ARBs vs. generic ACEIs in Croatia than Austria. However, limited impact of restrictions on esomeprazole in Norway with the first prescription or recommendation in hospital where restrictions do not apply. Similar findings when generic losartan became available in Western Europe. Conclusions: Multiple demand-side measures are needed to influence prescribing patterns. When combined with supply-side measures, activities can realize appreciable savings. Health authorities cannot rely on a "spill over" effect between classes to affect changes in prescribing.
Original languageEnglish
Article number106
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers in Pharmacology
Volume5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jun 2014

Keywords

  • demand-side measures
  • drug utilization studies
  • generics
  • PPIs
  • renin-angiotensin inhibitor drugs
  • statins
  • angiotensin receptor antagonists
  • atorvastatin
  • dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase inhibitor
  • esomeprazole
  • hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor
  • losartan
  • proton pump inhibitor
  • rosuvastatin
  • ambulatory care
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Croatia
  • Denmark
  • drug cost
  • drug use
  • drug utilization
  • Germany
  • health care policy
  • Ireland
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • observational study
  • Portugal
  • prescription
  • reimbursement
  • retrospective study
  • review
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom
  • Western Europe

Cite this

Godman, B., Wettermark, B., van Woerkom, M., Fraeyman, J., Alvarez-Madrazo, S., Berg, C., Bishop, I., Bucsics, A., Campbell, S., Finlayson, A. E., Fürst, J., Garuoliene, K., Herholz, H., Kalaba, M., Laius, O., Piessnegger, J., Sermet, C., Schwabe, U., Vlahovic-Palcevski, V. V., ... Gustafsson, L. L. (2014). Multiple policies to enhance prescribing efficiency for established medicines in Europe with a particular focus on demand-side measures: findings and future implications. Frontiers in Pharmacology , 5, [106]. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2014.00106