Monitoring of a heterogeneous reaction by acoustic emission

A. Nordon, R. Waddell, L.J. Bellamy, A. Gachagan, D. Littlejohn, G. Hayward

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The feasibility of monitoring the reaction of itaconic acid and 1-butanol by non-invasive acoustic emission measurements has been assessed. A piezoelectric transducer with a resonant mode at 90 kHz was attached to the external wall of a 1 L jacketed glass reactor. Acoustic emission from the oil jacket, stirrer and toluene was insignificant in comparison to that produced by the itaconic acid particles, which was transmitted through the glass walls and heating oil to the transducer. The transducer responded to acoustic emission from itaconic acid up to 300 kHz, with the region around 90 kHz having the highest sensitivity. The effect of particle concentration and size on the acoustic emission generated has also been investigated, with higher concentrations and larger particles giving the greater signals. The detection limit for itaconic acid particles was 14 g dm−3 of toluene. The effect of 1-butanol concentration and temperature on the progression of reactions was monitored using acoustic emission. It was possible to detect differences in the rate and extent of the reaction under different conditions, and also to identify when a combination of the concentration and/or size of itaconic acid particles had reached a steady state. However, it was not possible to differentiate between changes in particle size and concentration using the resonant transducer.

LanguageEnglish
Pages463-467
Number of pages5
JournalAnalyst
Volume129
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2005

Fingerprint

acoustic emission
Acoustic emissions
Acoustics
transducer
Transducers
Acids
Monitoring
acid
monitoring
1-Butanol
Toluene
Butenes
Particle Size
toluene
Glass
Oils
glass
Piezoelectric transducers
oil
Heating

Keywords

  • acoustic emission
  • heterogeneous reaction

Cite this

Nordon, A., Waddell, R., Bellamy, L. J., Gachagan, A., Littlejohn, D., & Hayward, G. (2005). Monitoring of a heterogeneous reaction by acoustic emission. Analyst, 129(5), 463-467.
Nordon, A. ; Waddell, R. ; Bellamy, L.J. ; Gachagan, A. ; Littlejohn, D. ; Hayward, G. / Monitoring of a heterogeneous reaction by acoustic emission. In: Analyst. 2005 ; Vol. 129, No. 5. pp. 463-467.
@article{f6eccd99be2f4cf9b54689b5d59370f9,
title = "Monitoring of a heterogeneous reaction by acoustic emission",
abstract = "The feasibility of monitoring the reaction of itaconic acid and 1-butanol by non-invasive acoustic emission measurements has been assessed. A piezoelectric transducer with a resonant mode at 90 kHz was attached to the external wall of a 1 L jacketed glass reactor. Acoustic emission from the oil jacket, stirrer and toluene was insignificant in comparison to that produced by the itaconic acid particles, which was transmitted through the glass walls and heating oil to the transducer. The transducer responded to acoustic emission from itaconic acid up to 300 kHz, with the region around 90 kHz having the highest sensitivity. The effect of particle concentration and size on the acoustic emission generated has also been investigated, with higher concentrations and larger particles giving the greater signals. The detection limit for itaconic acid particles was 14 g dm−3 of toluene. The effect of 1-butanol concentration and temperature on the progression of reactions was monitored using acoustic emission. It was possible to detect differences in the rate and extent of the reaction under different conditions, and also to identify when a combination of the concentration and/or size of itaconic acid particles had reached a steady state. However, it was not possible to differentiate between changes in particle size and concentration using the resonant transducer.",
keywords = "acoustic emission, heterogeneous reaction",
author = "A. Nordon and R. Waddell and L.J. Bellamy and A. Gachagan and D. Littlejohn and G. Hayward",
year = "2005",
language = "English",
volume = "129",
pages = "463--467",
journal = "Analyst",
issn = "0003-2654",
number = "5",

}

Nordon, A, Waddell, R, Bellamy, LJ, Gachagan, A, Littlejohn, D & Hayward, G 2005, 'Monitoring of a heterogeneous reaction by acoustic emission' Analyst, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 463-467.

Monitoring of a heterogeneous reaction by acoustic emission. / Nordon, A.; Waddell, R.; Bellamy, L.J.; Gachagan, A.; Littlejohn, D.; Hayward, G.

In: Analyst, Vol. 129, No. 5, 2005, p. 463-467.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Monitoring of a heterogeneous reaction by acoustic emission

AU - Nordon, A.

AU - Waddell, R.

AU - Bellamy, L.J.

AU - Gachagan, A.

AU - Littlejohn, D.

AU - Hayward, G.

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - The feasibility of monitoring the reaction of itaconic acid and 1-butanol by non-invasive acoustic emission measurements has been assessed. A piezoelectric transducer with a resonant mode at 90 kHz was attached to the external wall of a 1 L jacketed glass reactor. Acoustic emission from the oil jacket, stirrer and toluene was insignificant in comparison to that produced by the itaconic acid particles, which was transmitted through the glass walls and heating oil to the transducer. The transducer responded to acoustic emission from itaconic acid up to 300 kHz, with the region around 90 kHz having the highest sensitivity. The effect of particle concentration and size on the acoustic emission generated has also been investigated, with higher concentrations and larger particles giving the greater signals. The detection limit for itaconic acid particles was 14 g dm−3 of toluene. The effect of 1-butanol concentration and temperature on the progression of reactions was monitored using acoustic emission. It was possible to detect differences in the rate and extent of the reaction under different conditions, and also to identify when a combination of the concentration and/or size of itaconic acid particles had reached a steady state. However, it was not possible to differentiate between changes in particle size and concentration using the resonant transducer.

AB - The feasibility of monitoring the reaction of itaconic acid and 1-butanol by non-invasive acoustic emission measurements has been assessed. A piezoelectric transducer with a resonant mode at 90 kHz was attached to the external wall of a 1 L jacketed glass reactor. Acoustic emission from the oil jacket, stirrer and toluene was insignificant in comparison to that produced by the itaconic acid particles, which was transmitted through the glass walls and heating oil to the transducer. The transducer responded to acoustic emission from itaconic acid up to 300 kHz, with the region around 90 kHz having the highest sensitivity. The effect of particle concentration and size on the acoustic emission generated has also been investigated, with higher concentrations and larger particles giving the greater signals. The detection limit for itaconic acid particles was 14 g dm−3 of toluene. The effect of 1-butanol concentration and temperature on the progression of reactions was monitored using acoustic emission. It was possible to detect differences in the rate and extent of the reaction under different conditions, and also to identify when a combination of the concentration and/or size of itaconic acid particles had reached a steady state. However, it was not possible to differentiate between changes in particle size and concentration using the resonant transducer.

KW - acoustic emission

KW - heterogeneous reaction

UR - http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2004/an/b402875a

M3 - Article

VL - 129

SP - 463

EP - 467

JO - Analyst

T2 - Analyst

JF - Analyst

SN - 0003-2654

IS - 5

ER -