Mission analysis and systems design of a near-term and far-term pole-sitter mission

Jeannette Heiligers, Matteo Ceriotti, Colin McInnes, James Biggs

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper provides a detailed mission analysis and systems design of a near-term and far-term pole-sitter mission. The pole-sitter concept was previously introduced as a solution to the poor temporal resolution of polar observations from highly inclined, low Earth orbits and the poor high latitude coverage from geostationary orbit. It considers a spacecraft that is continuously above either the North or South Pole and, as such, can provide real-time, continuous and hemispherical coverage of the polar regions. Being on a non-Keplerian orbit, a continuous thrust is required to maintain the pole-sitter position. For this, two different propulsion strategies are proposed, which result in a near-term pole-sitter mission using solar electric propulsion (SEP) and a far-term pole-sitter mission where the SEP thruster is hybridized with a solar sail. For both propulsion strategies, minimum propellant pole-sitter orbits are designed. In order to maximize the spacecraft mass at the start of the operations phase of the mission, the transfer from Earth to the pole-sitter is designed and optimized assuming either a Soyuz or an Ariane 5 launch. The maximized mass upon injection into the polesitter orbit is subsequently used in a detailed mass budget analysis that will allow for a trade-off between mission lifetime and payload mass capacity. Also, candidate payloads for a range of applications are investigated. Finally, transfers between north and south pole-sitter orbits are considered to overcome the limitations in observations due to the tilt of the polar axis that causes the Poles to be alternately situated in darkness. It will be shown that in some cases these transfers allow for propellant savings, enabling a further extension of the pole-sitter mission.
LanguageEnglish
PagesPaper IAA-AAS-DyCoSS1-11-02
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 19 Mar 2012
Event1st IAA Conference on Dynamics and Control of Space Systems - Porto, Portugal
Duration: 19 Mar 201221 Mar 2012

Conference

Conference1st IAA Conference on Dynamics and Control of Space Systems
CountryPortugal
CityPorto
Period19/03/1221/03/12

Fingerprint

System Design
Pole
Poles
Systems analysis
Term
Orbits
Orbit
Electric propulsion
Propellants
Spacecraft
Propulsion
Coverage
Earth (planet)
Inclined
Tilt
Injection
Lifetime
Trade-offs
Maximise
Real-time

Keywords

  • pole-sitter
  • polar observation
  • solar electric propulsion
  • hybrid low-thrust propulsion
  • systems design
  • trajectory optimisation

Cite this

Heiligers, J., Ceriotti, M., McInnes, C., & Biggs, J. (2012). Mission analysis and systems design of a near-term and far-term pole-sitter mission. Paper IAA-AAS-DyCoSS1-11-02. Paper presented at 1st IAA Conference on Dynamics and Control of Space Systems, Porto, Portugal.
Heiligers, Jeannette ; Ceriotti, Matteo ; McInnes, Colin ; Biggs, James. / Mission analysis and systems design of a near-term and far-term pole-sitter mission. Paper presented at 1st IAA Conference on Dynamics and Control of Space Systems, Porto, Portugal.20 p.
@conference{151e20e876e44926bee676022c7c355e,
title = "Mission analysis and systems design of a near-term and far-term pole-sitter mission",
abstract = "This paper provides a detailed mission analysis and systems design of a near-term and far-term pole-sitter mission. The pole-sitter concept was previously introduced as a solution to the poor temporal resolution of polar observations from highly inclined, low Earth orbits and the poor high latitude coverage from geostationary orbit. It considers a spacecraft that is continuously above either the North or South Pole and, as such, can provide real-time, continuous and hemispherical coverage of the polar regions. Being on a non-Keplerian orbit, a continuous thrust is required to maintain the pole-sitter position. For this, two different propulsion strategies are proposed, which result in a near-term pole-sitter mission using solar electric propulsion (SEP) and a far-term pole-sitter mission where the SEP thruster is hybridized with a solar sail. For both propulsion strategies, minimum propellant pole-sitter orbits are designed. In order to maximize the spacecraft mass at the start of the operations phase of the mission, the transfer from Earth to the pole-sitter is designed and optimized assuming either a Soyuz or an Ariane 5 launch. The maximized mass upon injection into the polesitter orbit is subsequently used in a detailed mass budget analysis that will allow for a trade-off between mission lifetime and payload mass capacity. Also, candidate payloads for a range of applications are investigated. Finally, transfers between north and south pole-sitter orbits are considered to overcome the limitations in observations due to the tilt of the polar axis that causes the Poles to be alternately situated in darkness. It will be shown that in some cases these transfers allow for propellant savings, enabling a further extension of the pole-sitter mission.",
keywords = "pole-sitter, polar observation , solar electric propulsion , hybrid low-thrust propulsion, systems design , trajectory optimisation",
author = "Jeannette Heiligers and Matteo Ceriotti and Colin McInnes and James Biggs",
year = "2012",
month = "3",
day = "19",
language = "English",
pages = "Paper IAA--AAS--DyCoSS1--11--02",
note = "1st IAA Conference on Dynamics and Control of Space Systems ; Conference date: 19-03-2012 Through 21-03-2012",

}

Heiligers, J, Ceriotti, M, McInnes, C & Biggs, J 2012, 'Mission analysis and systems design of a near-term and far-term pole-sitter mission' Paper presented at 1st IAA Conference on Dynamics and Control of Space Systems, Porto, Portugal, 19/03/12 - 21/03/12, pp. Paper IAA-AAS-DyCoSS1-11-02.

Mission analysis and systems design of a near-term and far-term pole-sitter mission. / Heiligers, Jeannette; Ceriotti, Matteo; McInnes, Colin; Biggs, James.

2012. Paper IAA-AAS-DyCoSS1-11-02 Paper presented at 1st IAA Conference on Dynamics and Control of Space Systems, Porto, Portugal.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

TY - CONF

T1 - Mission analysis and systems design of a near-term and far-term pole-sitter mission

AU - Heiligers, Jeannette

AU - Ceriotti, Matteo

AU - McInnes, Colin

AU - Biggs, James

PY - 2012/3/19

Y1 - 2012/3/19

N2 - This paper provides a detailed mission analysis and systems design of a near-term and far-term pole-sitter mission. The pole-sitter concept was previously introduced as a solution to the poor temporal resolution of polar observations from highly inclined, low Earth orbits and the poor high latitude coverage from geostationary orbit. It considers a spacecraft that is continuously above either the North or South Pole and, as such, can provide real-time, continuous and hemispherical coverage of the polar regions. Being on a non-Keplerian orbit, a continuous thrust is required to maintain the pole-sitter position. For this, two different propulsion strategies are proposed, which result in a near-term pole-sitter mission using solar electric propulsion (SEP) and a far-term pole-sitter mission where the SEP thruster is hybridized with a solar sail. For both propulsion strategies, minimum propellant pole-sitter orbits are designed. In order to maximize the spacecraft mass at the start of the operations phase of the mission, the transfer from Earth to the pole-sitter is designed and optimized assuming either a Soyuz or an Ariane 5 launch. The maximized mass upon injection into the polesitter orbit is subsequently used in a detailed mass budget analysis that will allow for a trade-off between mission lifetime and payload mass capacity. Also, candidate payloads for a range of applications are investigated. Finally, transfers between north and south pole-sitter orbits are considered to overcome the limitations in observations due to the tilt of the polar axis that causes the Poles to be alternately situated in darkness. It will be shown that in some cases these transfers allow for propellant savings, enabling a further extension of the pole-sitter mission.

AB - This paper provides a detailed mission analysis and systems design of a near-term and far-term pole-sitter mission. The pole-sitter concept was previously introduced as a solution to the poor temporal resolution of polar observations from highly inclined, low Earth orbits and the poor high latitude coverage from geostationary orbit. It considers a spacecraft that is continuously above either the North or South Pole and, as such, can provide real-time, continuous and hemispherical coverage of the polar regions. Being on a non-Keplerian orbit, a continuous thrust is required to maintain the pole-sitter position. For this, two different propulsion strategies are proposed, which result in a near-term pole-sitter mission using solar electric propulsion (SEP) and a far-term pole-sitter mission where the SEP thruster is hybridized with a solar sail. For both propulsion strategies, minimum propellant pole-sitter orbits are designed. In order to maximize the spacecraft mass at the start of the operations phase of the mission, the transfer from Earth to the pole-sitter is designed and optimized assuming either a Soyuz or an Ariane 5 launch. The maximized mass upon injection into the polesitter orbit is subsequently used in a detailed mass budget analysis that will allow for a trade-off between mission lifetime and payload mass capacity. Also, candidate payloads for a range of applications are investigated. Finally, transfers between north and south pole-sitter orbits are considered to overcome the limitations in observations due to the tilt of the polar axis that causes the Poles to be alternately situated in darkness. It will be shown that in some cases these transfers allow for propellant savings, enabling a further extension of the pole-sitter mission.

KW - pole-sitter

KW - polar observation

KW - solar electric propulsion

KW - hybrid low-thrust propulsion

KW - systems design

KW - trajectory optimisation

UR - http://iaaweb.org/content/view/450/611/

M3 - Paper

SP - Paper IAA-AAS-DyCoSS1-11-02

ER -

Heiligers J, Ceriotti M, McInnes C, Biggs J. Mission analysis and systems design of a near-term and far-term pole-sitter mission. 2012. Paper presented at 1st IAA Conference on Dynamics and Control of Space Systems, Porto, Portugal.