Minimization of residential energy cost considering energy storage system and EV with driving usage probabilities

Yanyi Sun, Hong Yue, Jiangfeng Zhang, Campbell Booth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Citations (Scopus)
46 Downloads (Pure)


Electric vehicle (EV) can be applied to discharge power back to the grid, which is called vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. There is a constant debate on whether V2G is an economically viable option due to the high battery degradation cost. In this work, the cost benefit of EV customers participating in V2G has been studied using different feed-in tariffs (FITs). A model is developed for minimization of energy cost for residential users, which includes an EV, a separate energy storage system (ESS), and renewable energy supply. Key factors such as the EV driving usage, the degradation cost of EV and ESS batteries are considered. The EV driving usage is established through a designed survey, from which the probability of vehicle parking and plug in at home, the probabilities of EV under driving and parking outside can be calculated. Comprehensive case studies have been undertaken to investigate the optimization strategies under various scenarios. Two types of electricity tariffs, time-of-use (TOU) and fixed tariffs, are considered. It is revealed that certain threshold levels of FITs are expected to allow users benefit from V2G. Compared with non-optimized operation, the cost saving with the optimized strategy is evident in the case studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1752-1763
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number4
Early online date14 Sept 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • electric vehicle (EV)
  • vehicle to grid (V2G)
  • energy storage system (ESS)
  • battery degredation
  • driving usage
  • photovoltaic (PV)
  • energy cost optimisation


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