Miniaturised experimental simulation of open-die forging

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This study presents a novel experimental set-up for laboratory-scale simulation of cogging and open-die forging processes during ingot-to-billet conversion of advanced engineering alloys. The experimental set-up is designed to be cost-effective, employing a remotely operated manipulator assembly constructed from readily available “off-the-shelf” components used in conjunction with a conventional uni-axial load-frame - equipment that is available in most materials testing laboratories. Small test-bars of C101 copper alloy were subjected to multi-stroke cogging operations with intermittent rotation at ambient and elevated temperatures (20 - 600°C). Prior to forging, the as-received material underwent heat treatments to coarsen the starting grain structure, and to help demonstrate the capability of the apparatus to achieve grain refinement via recrystallisation (dynamic and static) and recovery processes within the deformed material. The resulting microstructural evolution and mechanical property changes of the forged material have been investigated using light microscopy (LM), Vickers hardness (HV) testing, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The deformed C101 alloy exhibited measurable grain refinement after forging at elevated temperatures, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the designed miniaturised open-die forging set-up.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3146-3161
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Materials Research and Technology
Early online date22 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sept 2023


  • open-die forging
  • equipment design
  • materials processing
  • cogging
  • process modelling


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