Mind the costs, too: towards better cost-effectiveness analyses of PBF programmes

Y-Ling Chi, Mohamed Gad, Sebastian Bauhoff, Kalipso Chalkidou, Itamar Megiddo, Francis Ruiz, Peter C Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
12 Downloads (Pure)


- The evidence surrounding the cost-effectiveness of performance-based financing (PBF) is weak, and it is not clear how PBF compares with alternative interventions in terms of its value for money.

- It is important to fill this evidence gap as countries transition from aid and face increasing budget constraints and competing priorities for the use of their domestic resources.

- In conducting cost-effectiveness analyses of PBF, researchers should be mindful of the identification, measurement and valuation of costs and effects, provide justification for the scope of their studies, and specify appropriate comparators and decision rules.

- We also recommend the use of a reference case to lay out the principles, preferred methodological choices and reporting standards, as well as a checklist.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere000994
Number of pages3
JournalBMJ Global Health
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2018


  • performance-based financing
  • PBF
  • cost-effectiveness analysis
  • public health


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