Microscale analysis of fractured rock sealed with microbially induced CaCO3 precipitation: influence on hydraulic and mechanical performance

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Abstract

Microbially induced CaCO3 precipitation (MICP) has shown great potential to reduce permeability in intact rocks as a means to seal fluid pathways in subsurface ground, for example to secure waste storage repositories. However, much less is known about how to apply MICP to seal fractured rock. Furthermore, there is limited information on the hydraulic and mechanical properties of MICP filled fractures, which are essential criteria to assess seal performance. Here, MICP injection strategies were tested on sandstone cores, aimed at obtaining a homogeneous porosity fill that reduced permeability by 3 orders of magnitude. The injection strategy resulting in the most homogenous calcite distribution was then applied to fractured granite cores, to yield transmissivity reduction of up to 4 orders of magnitude. Microscale analysis of these sealed granite cores using X‐ray computed tomography and electron microscopy showed that > 67% of the fracture aperture was filled with calcite, with crystals growing from both fracture planes, and bridging the fracture aperture in several places. Shear strength tests performed on these cores showed that the peak shear strength correlated well with the percentage of the fracture area where calcite bridged the aperture. Notably, brittle failure occurred within the MICP grout, showing that the calcite crystals were strongly attached to the granite surface. If MICP fracture sealing strategies can be designed such that the majority of CaCO3 crystals bridge across the fracture aperture, then MICP has the potential to provide significant mechanical stability to the rock mass as well as forming a hydraulic barrier.
LanguageEnglish
Pages8295-8308
Number of pages14
JournalWater Resources Research
Volume54
Issue number10
Early online date24 Sep 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2018

Fingerprint

fracture aperture
calcite
Rocks
Hydraulics
hydraulics
Calcite
granite
crystal
Granite
rock
shear strength
Seals
permeability
brittle failure
grout
transmissivity
Shear strength
hydraulic property
sealing
electron microscopy

Keywords

  • ureolysis
  • shear strength
  • water protection
  • fracture grouting
  • calcite growth
  • X-ray computed tomography

Cite this

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title = "Microscale analysis of fractured rock sealed with microbially induced CaCO3 precipitation: influence on hydraulic and mechanical performance",
abstract = "Microbially induced CaCO3 precipitation (MICP) has shown great potential to reduce permeability in intact rocks as a means to seal fluid pathways in subsurface ground, for example to secure waste storage repositories. However, much less is known about how to apply MICP to seal fractured rock. Furthermore, there is limited information on the hydraulic and mechanical properties of MICP filled fractures, which are essential criteria to assess seal performance. Here, MICP injection strategies were tested on sandstone cores, aimed at obtaining a homogeneous porosity fill that reduced permeability by 3 orders of magnitude. The injection strategy resulting in the most homogenous calcite distribution was then applied to fractured granite cores, to yield transmissivity reduction of up to 4 orders of magnitude. Microscale analysis of these sealed granite cores using X‐ray computed tomography and electron microscopy showed that > 67{\%} of the fracture aperture was filled with calcite, with crystals growing from both fracture planes, and bridging the fracture aperture in several places. Shear strength tests performed on these cores showed that the peak shear strength correlated well with the percentage of the fracture area where calcite bridged the aperture. Notably, brittle failure occurred within the MICP grout, showing that the calcite crystals were strongly attached to the granite surface. If MICP fracture sealing strategies can be designed such that the majority of CaCO3 crystals bridge across the fracture aperture, then MICP has the potential to provide significant mechanical stability to the rock mass as well as forming a hydraulic barrier.",
keywords = "ureolysis, shear strength, water protection, fracture grouting, calcite growth, X-ray computed tomography",
author = "Tobler, {Dominique J.} and Minto, {James M.} and {El Mountassir}, Grainne and Lunn, {Rebecca J.} and Phoenix, {Vernon R.}",
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AU - Tobler, Dominique J.

AU - Minto, James M.

AU - El Mountassir, Grainne

AU - Lunn, Rebecca J.

AU - Phoenix, Vernon R.

PY - 2018/10/31

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N2 - Microbially induced CaCO3 precipitation (MICP) has shown great potential to reduce permeability in intact rocks as a means to seal fluid pathways in subsurface ground, for example to secure waste storage repositories. However, much less is known about how to apply MICP to seal fractured rock. Furthermore, there is limited information on the hydraulic and mechanical properties of MICP filled fractures, which are essential criteria to assess seal performance. Here, MICP injection strategies were tested on sandstone cores, aimed at obtaining a homogeneous porosity fill that reduced permeability by 3 orders of magnitude. The injection strategy resulting in the most homogenous calcite distribution was then applied to fractured granite cores, to yield transmissivity reduction of up to 4 orders of magnitude. Microscale analysis of these sealed granite cores using X‐ray computed tomography and electron microscopy showed that > 67% of the fracture aperture was filled with calcite, with crystals growing from both fracture planes, and bridging the fracture aperture in several places. Shear strength tests performed on these cores showed that the peak shear strength correlated well with the percentage of the fracture area where calcite bridged the aperture. Notably, brittle failure occurred within the MICP grout, showing that the calcite crystals were strongly attached to the granite surface. If MICP fracture sealing strategies can be designed such that the majority of CaCO3 crystals bridge across the fracture aperture, then MICP has the potential to provide significant mechanical stability to the rock mass as well as forming a hydraulic barrier.

AB - Microbially induced CaCO3 precipitation (MICP) has shown great potential to reduce permeability in intact rocks as a means to seal fluid pathways in subsurface ground, for example to secure waste storage repositories. However, much less is known about how to apply MICP to seal fractured rock. Furthermore, there is limited information on the hydraulic and mechanical properties of MICP filled fractures, which are essential criteria to assess seal performance. Here, MICP injection strategies were tested on sandstone cores, aimed at obtaining a homogeneous porosity fill that reduced permeability by 3 orders of magnitude. The injection strategy resulting in the most homogenous calcite distribution was then applied to fractured granite cores, to yield transmissivity reduction of up to 4 orders of magnitude. Microscale analysis of these sealed granite cores using X‐ray computed tomography and electron microscopy showed that > 67% of the fracture aperture was filled with calcite, with crystals growing from both fracture planes, and bridging the fracture aperture in several places. Shear strength tests performed on these cores showed that the peak shear strength correlated well with the percentage of the fracture area where calcite bridged the aperture. Notably, brittle failure occurred within the MICP grout, showing that the calcite crystals were strongly attached to the granite surface. If MICP fracture sealing strategies can be designed such that the majority of CaCO3 crystals bridge across the fracture aperture, then MICP has the potential to provide significant mechanical stability to the rock mass as well as forming a hydraulic barrier.

KW - ureolysis

KW - shear strength

KW - water protection

KW - fracture grouting

KW - calcite growth

KW - X-ray computed tomography

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