Microbiological evaluation of 5 L - and 20 L transparent polypropylene buckets for solar water disinfection (SODIS)

M. I. Polo-López, A. Martínez-García, M. J. Abeledo-Lameiro, H. Gómez-Couso, E. Ares-Mazás, A. Reboredo-Fernandez, T. D. Morse, L. Buck, K. Lungu, K. G. McGuigan, P. Fernandez-Ibañez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an appropriate technology for household treatment of drinking water in low-to-middle-income communities, as it is effective, low cost and easy to use. Nevertheless, uptake is low due partially to the burden of using small volume polyethylene terephthalate bottles (1.5-2 L). A major challenge is to develop a low-cost transparent container for disinfecting larger volumes of water. (2) Methods: This study examines the capability of transparent polypropylene (PP) buckets of 5 L- and 20 L- volume as SODIS containers using three waterborne pathogen indicators: Escherichia coli, MS2-phage and Cryptosporidium parvum. (3) Results: Similar inactivation kinetics were observed under natural sunlight for the inactivation of all three organisms in well water using 5 L- and 20 L-buckets compared to 1.5 L-polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) bottles. The PP materials were exposed to natural and accelerated solar ageing (ISO-16474). UV transmission of the 20 L-buckets remained stable and with physical integrity even after the longest ageing periods (9 months or 900 h of natural or artificial solar UV exposure, respectively). The 5 L-buckets were physically degraded and lost significant UV-transmission, due to the thinner wall compared to the 20 L-bucket. (4) Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 20 L SODIS bucket technology produces excellent bacterial, viral and protozoan inactivation and is obtained using a simple transparent polypropylene bucket fabricated locally at very low cost ($2.90 USD per unit). The increased bucket volume of 20 L allows for a ten-fold increase in treatment batch volume and can thus more easily provide for the drinking water requirements of most households. The use of buckets in households across low to middle income countries is an already accepted practice.

LanguageEnglish
Article number2193
Number of pages14
JournalMolecules
Volume24
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jun 2019

Fingerprint

buckets
Polypropylenes
Disinfection
polypropylene
Water
evaluation
Polyethylene Terephthalates
water
Bottles
Costs and Cost Analysis
Drinking Water
Containers
deactivation
Aging of materials
income
Coliphages
Virus Inactivation
Technology
drinking
Cryptosporidium parvum

Keywords

  • drinking water
  • household water treatment and storage
  • SODIS
  • E. coli
  • MS2-phage
  • cryptosporidium

Cite this

Polo-López, M. I., Martínez-García, A., Abeledo-Lameiro, M. J., Gómez-Couso, H., Ares-Mazás, E., Reboredo-Fernandez, A., ... Fernandez-Ibañez, P. (2019). Microbiological evaluation of 5 L - and 20 L transparent polypropylene buckets for solar water disinfection (SODIS). Molecules, 24(11), [2193]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112193
Polo-López, M. I. ; Martínez-García, A. ; Abeledo-Lameiro, M. J. ; Gómez-Couso, H. ; Ares-Mazás, E. ; Reboredo-Fernandez, A. ; Morse, T. D. ; Buck, L. ; Lungu, K. ; McGuigan, K. G. ; Fernandez-Ibañez, P. / Microbiological evaluation of 5 L - and 20 L transparent polypropylene buckets for solar water disinfection (SODIS). In: Molecules. 2019 ; Vol. 24, No. 11.
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abstract = "Background: Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an appropriate technology for household treatment of drinking water in low-to-middle-income communities, as it is effective, low cost and easy to use. Nevertheless, uptake is low due partially to the burden of using small volume polyethylene terephthalate bottles (1.5-2 L). A major challenge is to develop a low-cost transparent container for disinfecting larger volumes of water. (2) Methods: This study examines the capability of transparent polypropylene (PP) buckets of 5 L- and 20 L- volume as SODIS containers using three waterborne pathogen indicators: Escherichia coli, MS2-phage and Cryptosporidium parvum. (3) Results: Similar inactivation kinetics were observed under natural sunlight for the inactivation of all three organisms in well water using 5 L- and 20 L-buckets compared to 1.5 L-polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) bottles. The PP materials were exposed to natural and accelerated solar ageing (ISO-16474). UV transmission of the 20 L-buckets remained stable and with physical integrity even after the longest ageing periods (9 months or 900 h of natural or artificial solar UV exposure, respectively). The 5 L-buckets were physically degraded and lost significant UV-transmission, due to the thinner wall compared to the 20 L-bucket. (4) Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 20 L SODIS bucket technology produces excellent bacterial, viral and protozoan inactivation and is obtained using a simple transparent polypropylene bucket fabricated locally at very low cost ($2.90 USD per unit). The increased bucket volume of 20 L allows for a ten-fold increase in treatment batch volume and can thus more easily provide for the drinking water requirements of most households. The use of buckets in households across low to middle income countries is an already accepted practice.",
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Polo-López, MI, Martínez-García, A, Abeledo-Lameiro, MJ, Gómez-Couso, H, Ares-Mazás, E, Reboredo-Fernandez, A, Morse, TD, Buck, L, Lungu, K, McGuigan, KG & Fernandez-Ibañez, P 2019, 'Microbiological evaluation of 5 L - and 20 L transparent polypropylene buckets for solar water disinfection (SODIS)' Molecules, vol. 24, no. 11, 2193. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112193

Microbiological evaluation of 5 L - and 20 L transparent polypropylene buckets for solar water disinfection (SODIS). / Polo-López, M. I.; Martínez-García, A.; Abeledo-Lameiro, M. J.; Gómez-Couso, H. ; Ares-Mazás, E. ; Reboredo-Fernandez, A.; Morse, T. D.; Buck, L.; Lungu, K.; McGuigan, K. G.; Fernandez-Ibañez, P.

In: Molecules, Vol. 24, No. 11, 2193, 11.06.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Microbiological evaluation of 5 L - and 20 L transparent polypropylene buckets for solar water disinfection (SODIS)

AU - Polo-López, M. I.

AU - Martínez-García, A.

AU - Abeledo-Lameiro, M. J.

AU - Gómez-Couso, H.

AU - Ares-Mazás, E.

AU - Reboredo-Fernandez, A.

AU - Morse, T. D.

AU - Buck, L.

AU - Lungu, K.

AU - McGuigan, K. G.

AU - Fernandez-Ibañez, P.

PY - 2019/6/11

Y1 - 2019/6/11

N2 - Background: Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an appropriate technology for household treatment of drinking water in low-to-middle-income communities, as it is effective, low cost and easy to use. Nevertheless, uptake is low due partially to the burden of using small volume polyethylene terephthalate bottles (1.5-2 L). A major challenge is to develop a low-cost transparent container for disinfecting larger volumes of water. (2) Methods: This study examines the capability of transparent polypropylene (PP) buckets of 5 L- and 20 L- volume as SODIS containers using three waterborne pathogen indicators: Escherichia coli, MS2-phage and Cryptosporidium parvum. (3) Results: Similar inactivation kinetics were observed under natural sunlight for the inactivation of all three organisms in well water using 5 L- and 20 L-buckets compared to 1.5 L-polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) bottles. The PP materials were exposed to natural and accelerated solar ageing (ISO-16474). UV transmission of the 20 L-buckets remained stable and with physical integrity even after the longest ageing periods (9 months or 900 h of natural or artificial solar UV exposure, respectively). The 5 L-buckets were physically degraded and lost significant UV-transmission, due to the thinner wall compared to the 20 L-bucket. (4) Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 20 L SODIS bucket technology produces excellent bacterial, viral and protozoan inactivation and is obtained using a simple transparent polypropylene bucket fabricated locally at very low cost ($2.90 USD per unit). The increased bucket volume of 20 L allows for a ten-fold increase in treatment batch volume and can thus more easily provide for the drinking water requirements of most households. The use of buckets in households across low to middle income countries is an already accepted practice.

AB - Background: Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an appropriate technology for household treatment of drinking water in low-to-middle-income communities, as it is effective, low cost and easy to use. Nevertheless, uptake is low due partially to the burden of using small volume polyethylene terephthalate bottles (1.5-2 L). A major challenge is to develop a low-cost transparent container for disinfecting larger volumes of water. (2) Methods: This study examines the capability of transparent polypropylene (PP) buckets of 5 L- and 20 L- volume as SODIS containers using three waterborne pathogen indicators: Escherichia coli, MS2-phage and Cryptosporidium parvum. (3) Results: Similar inactivation kinetics were observed under natural sunlight for the inactivation of all three organisms in well water using 5 L- and 20 L-buckets compared to 1.5 L-polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) bottles. The PP materials were exposed to natural and accelerated solar ageing (ISO-16474). UV transmission of the 20 L-buckets remained stable and with physical integrity even after the longest ageing periods (9 months or 900 h of natural or artificial solar UV exposure, respectively). The 5 L-buckets were physically degraded and lost significant UV-transmission, due to the thinner wall compared to the 20 L-bucket. (4) Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 20 L SODIS bucket technology produces excellent bacterial, viral and protozoan inactivation and is obtained using a simple transparent polypropylene bucket fabricated locally at very low cost ($2.90 USD per unit). The increased bucket volume of 20 L allows for a ten-fold increase in treatment batch volume and can thus more easily provide for the drinking water requirements of most households. The use of buckets in households across low to middle income countries is an already accepted practice.

KW - drinking water

KW - household water treatment and storage

KW - SODIS

KW - E. coli

KW - MS2-phage

KW - cryptosporidium

UR - https://www.mdpi.com/journal/molecules

U2 - 10.3390/molecules24112193

DO - 10.3390/molecules24112193

M3 - Article

VL - 24

JO - Molecules

T2 - Molecules

JF - Molecules

SN - 1420-3049

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M1 - 2193

ER -

Polo-López MI, Martínez-García A, Abeledo-Lameiro MJ, Gómez-Couso H, Ares-Mazás E, Reboredo-Fernandez A et al. Microbiological evaluation of 5 L - and 20 L transparent polypropylene buckets for solar water disinfection (SODIS). Molecules. 2019 Jun 11;24(11). 2193. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112193